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Updated: 2 days 4 hours ago

Collection of Recommended Applications on Debian 12 Bookworm

Friday 15th of September 2023 04:16:00 PM

Here's our compilation of recommended applications and games for Debian 12 users. We write this especially for those who use GNOME Desktop but it works with any other desktop too. You will find below bonus recommendation links where you can download and try out ready to use sample documents or templates to be productive. We hope this will be helpful for you. So what to wait? Let's try it out.

Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates. 1. For Office Document Purposes

Debian 12 includes LibreOffice. Pictures above depict examples of LibreOffice uses in real world. Here's a short explanation and instant tips.

Writer (blue) can be used to import, edit and save Word documents. For example, tons of templates from can be adopted into open document text (odt) with it. 

Calc (green) for excellent spreadsheet work purposes. For example, a lot of Excel templates from can be adopted into open document spreadsheet (ods) with it. See for example Family Budget Planner below adopted into Calc.

Impress (orange) for impressive presentation making purposes. A lot of PowerPoint templates from various sources, including Harvard Medical School below, originally in pptx format, can be adopted into open document presentation (odp) with it. If you want to grab some templates, this website for example can be a good start.


2. For Graphics, Photos and Drawing Purposes

Inkscape, the illustrator application, is a full featured vector graphic editor supported by very active community people. It has a wealth amount of high-quality drawing documents freely downloadable in their Gallery Webpage. For example, below is About Screen by Chris Hildenbrand entitled New discoveries await....


3. For Designing House Interior

SweetHome3D is a beautiful application like SketchUp but specified for interior furniture and floor plan design instead. This application got a very healthy community with a wealth-amount of high-quality sample documents. To try this out, download one example from Gallery Webpage (in .sh3d format) and open in SweetHome3D. For example


4. For Fun

See also our Games Collection for Debian Bookworm.

Why not play some games? Debian users need to have fun, too. We have Warzone 2100 to invite you eliminate all enemies' bases.  You can fight in either one player or multiplayer or even online. It is a very fun game to play while sipping a cup of coffee, if you like.


See Also

Electronic Engineering Tools Collection for Debian

Debian Downloading Guide for Beginners

Debian System Upgrade Guide for Beginners

What To Do After Installing Debian

This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

Popular Software Applications and Games Written in C++ Language

Wednesday 30th of August 2023 05:04:00 PM

This collection will show you a list of software applications, games and libraries available on Ubuntu which are written in C++ programming language. Included in this list 0 A.D. strategy game, Blender 3D animation maker, and Inkscape illustrator among others. We included a quick command to install each one in case you want to try to run or play it. We hope this helps promoting Free Software as well as inviting students to learn about C++ by real-world examples and practices. Lastly, we hope you enjoy them all. Let's start reading.

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0 A.D. 

Zero Ante Dominion, one the most advanced video games from our Free Software Community, is written in C++. It is a 3D real time strategy (similar to Age of Empires III) where player builds a country and fight or establish diplomatic ties to other countries. In software terms, it is built using wxWidgets library (see below) and licensed under GNU GPL

[ Wikipedia ] [ Homepage ] [ $ sudo apt install 0ad ]




Aegisub, the famous movie subtitle maker from our community, is written in C++. It is widely used for making subtitles for anime, movie/video and even karaoke. In software terms, it is written with wxWidgets library (see below) and licensed under 3-clause BSD license. However, although it is still available on Ubuntu and Debian, today the original homepage seems to be down and the development didn't see any updates for long time.

[ Wikipedia ] [ Homepage ] [ $ sudo apt install aegisub ]


Ardour, the digital audio workstation of our community, is written in C++. People use it to record audio into hard disk and create digital music (to be more precise, recording - editing - mixing - mastering). It is aimed for audio engineers, composers, musicians, soundtrack editors, podcasters and radio producers. In short, it is a great alternative to the proprietary FL Studio or Cubase. It is developed by the same person who created JACK Audio. In software terms, it is explicitly explained that Ardour is written using GTKmm (see below) and licensed under GNU GPL.

[ Wikipedia ] [ Homepage ] [ $ sudo apt install ardour ]


Audacity, the most popular audio wave editor from our community, is written in C++. People use Audacity for recording, editing and analyzing songs or audio recordings (this includes joining, cutting, modifying, and applying effects to the waves in multi-track ways). It supports many formats to import/export by default including MP3 and OGG Vorbis. Audacity is surprisingly famous with over 300 million downloads over its life recorded by FossHub, Sourceforge and Google Code. In software terms, Audacity is written using wxWidgets (see below) and licensed under GNU GPL.

[ Wikipedia ] [ Homepage ] [ $ sudo apt install audacity ]



Blender, the most successful desktop free software, is written in C++. People use Blender for 3D drawing, creating 3D/2D animations, editing videos and compositing, rendering  (and architecture drawings now with BlenderBIM plugin). The most excellent examples of its capabilities can be seen on Blender movies primarily Elephants Dream (world-first open movie), Big Buck Bunny, Sintel, Tears of Steel and many more. In software terms, Blender is a primary example of free software which formerly proprietary and it is licensed under GNU GPL since 2002.

[ Wikipedia ] [ Homepage ] [ $ sudo apt install blender ]


Chromium, the open source origin of the proprietary Google Chrome, is written in C++. It is the world-leading web browser in terms of technology and popularity. Because it is written in C++, so are its fully free software derivatives namely Iridium and Ungoogled Chromium (fully free distro Guix includes the latter).

[ Wikipedia ] [ Homepage ] [ $ sudo apt install chromium-browser ]



FreeCAD, the most feature-rich 2D/3D computer aided design tool and BIM software of our community, is also written in C++. People use it for drafting, architecture drawing, machinery drawing, and 3D printing. In software terms, FreeCAD is written with Qt library (see below) and is licensed under GNU LGPL. See also LibreCAD

[ Wikipedia ] [ Homepage ] [ $ sudo apt install freecad ]


Godot Game Engine 

Godot, one of the most feature-rich fully-crossplatform game maker software, is written in C++. People use Godot to develop video games and interactive applications for all platforms (PC, Mac and Mobile). Godot can create games by both dimensions (2D and 3D) and both networking types (offline and online). First released in 2014, now it is growing quickly and has produced a lot of video games created by the community (please notice that some of them are proprietary). Its capabilities can be seen in, take for example, Halls of Torment.

[ Wikipedia ] [ Homepage ] [ $ sudo apt install godot3 ]



GParted, the hard disk partition software part of Ubuntu, is written in C++. We Ubuntu users always meet with GParted when running LiveCD to further format, resize, shrink, delete, rename disk partitions. We believe it is among the most useful software for any Ubuntu user. In software terms, GParted is written with GTKmm (the C++ version of GTK) and licensed under GNU GPL.

[ Wikipedia ] [ Homepage ] [ $ sudo apt install gparted ]


gtkmm, the C++ version of GTK, is the software library for C++ that creates graphical user interface for applications like GParted (see above) and Inkscape (see below). In short, actually GTK library cannot be used except with C language then gtkmm comes to make it possible for programmers keep using GTK with C++ language instead. Thus, gtkmm is an alternative or competitor to Qt and wxWidgets (see below).

[ Wikipedia ] [ Homepage ] [ Install Guide ]


Inkscape, the vector editor and illustrator software of our community, is written in C++. People use Inkscape for graphic design (i.e. making logos, brochures, posters etc.) as well as web design (i.e. making mockups or assets) in the similar ways they use CorelDRAW or Adobe Illustrator (note: in pairing with Scribus for CMYK and printing parts). In software terms, Inkscape is written with GTKmm and licensed under GNU GPL.

[ Wikipedia ] [ Homepage ] [ $ sudo apt install inkscape ]



Kool Desktop Environment (now just KDE), the software technology from Germany mainly known for empowering Kubuntu, is written mainly in C++. KDE is known as the desktop software layer of GNU/Linux operating systems. It consists of a lot of beautiful yet useful applications and libraries, say for example, Kdenlive and Krita (see below) among many others. 

[ Wikipedia ] [ Homepage ] [ Kubuntu (Operating System) ]



KDE Non-Linear Video Editor (Kdenlive), one of the most advanced video editing software from our community, is written in C++ just like any other KDE application. People use Kdenlive to edit, join, split, cut, rearrange and give effects to video audio in multitrack ways. In software terms, Kdenlive is written with Qt library (see below) and licensed under GNU GPL. See also Shotcut.

[ Wikipedia ] [ Homepage ] [ $ sudo apt install kdenlive]


Krita, the digital painting and 2D animation software of our community, is written in C++. Historically, Krita was part of Calligra --the office suite of KDE-- and is now a separate project. People use krita to draw digital painting, comics, cartoons, manga, anime and make 2D animation. They use it in similar ways they use Photoshop or in particular Manga Studio.

[ Wikipedia ] [ Homepage ] [ $ sudo apt install krita ]


Qt, the material (read: library) which Kubuntu and KDE were built upon, is written in C++ and created for use with C++. Programmers use Qt in their code so the applications they made have beautiful looks, easy to interact with mouse clicks, and are crossplatform. In GNU/Linux world, Qt is, other than GTK and wxWidgets, the top library to make graphical programs. Qt, thus is an alternative or competitor to GTKmm (see above) and wxWidgets (see below).

[ Wikipedia ] [ Homepage ] [ Install Guide ]



Telegram, the free software fast and crossplatform messenger, is written in C++ for the Desktop Version. People use Telegram for telecommunication (i.e. group chat, voice & video calls, screen sharing, file sharing, etc.) in the same ways they use WhatsApp (in US) or LINE (in Japan) or QQ (in China). Surprisingly, Telegram is very popular and we believe it's the most used free software messenger with 800 millions users reported in 2023. We know no other free software messengers to surpass the number of Telegram users today.

[ Wikipedia ] [ Homepage ] [ $ sudo apt install telegram-desktop ]


OpenCV, the library used commonly in universities for computer vision and image processing lectures, is written in C++. It is one among the most versatile software libraries as it's available in literally almost all operating systems and hardware platforms. People use it to develop software (usually as a part of a larger system) for purposes like face recognition, gesture/motion recognition, mobile robotics, augmented reality etc.

[ Wikipedia ] [ Homepage


Warzone 2100

Warzone 2100, the Starcraft-like 3D real-time strategy game of our community, is written in C++. Player will establish a base, build a lot of battle tanks, enhance technology bit by bit, then attack and destroy all enemy bases to win. Similar to Blender, this game is another excellent example of successful free software which was formerly proprietary. Among others in this collection, Warzone is the only one with Sony Playstation platform origin history.

[ Wikipedia ] [ Homepage ] [ $ sudo apt install warzone2100 ]



wxWidgets (formerly wxWindows), the widely used graphical user interface library, is written in C++ for use with C++. People use it in combination with C++ language to write GUI software for all desktop platforms and thus it is an alternative/competitor to Qt library (see above). In this collection alone we already mentioned examples written with wxWidgets including 0 A.D., Aegisub, and Audacity above.

 [ Wikipedia ] [ Homepage ] [ Install Guide using CodeBlocks ]


This collection ends with wxWidgets and of course we don't mention all of C++ programs here as there are still really a lot of great ones out there. All in all, we hope this will be useful for you. Happy hacking!  



Category: Free software programmed in C++ (Wikipedia)

Category: Software that uses Qt 

Category: Software that uses wxWidgets 

List of Free and open source software packages 

This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.


Devuan GNU+Linux 5 "Daedalus" Released with Download Links, Torrents and Mirrors

Friday 18th of August 2023 03:40:00 PM

Devuan GNU+Linux releases version 5 codenamed "Daedalus" on Tuesday, 15 August 2023. It is based on Debian 12 "Bookworm" and coincidentally released close to Debian's thirtieth birthday. We strongly recommend to download via torrent instead of regular links --if you can-- because Devuan torrent shows all choices in one place to you and you can just pick which one you wish. Congratulations to Devuan Community and happy downloading!

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About Devuan


Devuan is a variation of Debian GNU/Linux full distribution without systemd technologies developed in collaboration by Foundation Netherlands and Veteran Unix Admins Australia. Devuan Project was started in 2014 and its first OS release was version Jessie 1.0 in 2017. In these modern days, Devuan is one among a few operating systems which still continue supporting older PC architecture also known as i386 or 32-bit. What makes Devuan unique is its commitment to make all free software as a whole work without systemd (they call it init freedom), its official name GNU+Linux, its release name system follows planetary naming, the encouragement to create new distros through Devuan SDK and the special package management tech called Amprolla.

Download Devuan 5


All editions of Devuan 5 "Daedalus" are divided into five choices namely desktop-live, netinstall, server, desktop-install and minimal-live which each one is divided further by i386 and amd64 (also known as PC 32-bit and PC 64-bit). Below are direct download (also known as regular) links of them we picked out from mirror server number one of Devuan. If you don't know which one to pick, simply select the first one below.

desktop-live [ i386 ] [ amd64 ]

netinstall [ i386 ] [ amd64 ]  

server [ i386 ] [ amd64 ] [ remaining_cds ]

desktop-installer [ i386 ] [ amd64 ]

minimal-live [ i386 ] [amd64


Download Devuan 5 Torrent


All editions of Devuan 5 "Daedalus" can be downloaded collectively as well as selectively (meaning you can pick only one among all choices) via torrent method aside from regular method above. We recommend this method for everyone. 


devuan_daedalus [torrent



Devuan 5 "Daedalus" provides worldwide mirrors or download servers thanks to the support from multiple companies and community. If your progress is slow using one of the links above, try to use alternative link from mirrors below. 






United States

United States



After downloading a copy of an ISO image file of Devuan, you are advised to compare the SHA256SUM value of your copy with SHA256SUM value of the official release. If the value matches the original, then your copy is okay. Otherwise, it is corrupted and you should re-download it.  

87b9fec4d1e0cc9872c0f3fead82bfe03dc38af1f564ea43a1f7386414c2bdf8 devuan_daedalus_5.0.0_amd64_desktop-live.iso
a8d354cbf8bc7137dad4734d508a2f3dcfe9d87132f01d4ae14955b6e770d86a devuan_daedalus_5.0.0_i386_desktop-live.iso
0f49178c7a2c319336ec5937c0200572fceffbfd7bdfbc2dc52ba7bb608d50aa devuan_daedalus_5.0.0_amd64_cd2.iso
1c679e761ac5b4c7a5ef57699b80473db060946896c53763e9917d12ccc8e78e devuan_daedalus_5.0.0_amd64_cd3.iso
66dd939a260793652b89fe6c69857647a278b0032154f345bd6cc1ce3ffedcab devuan_daedalus_5.0.0_amd64_cd4.iso
4cd9dd94d49f71dbaa721b5c15450c4bb52b303320c99868428f49d779cfde18 devuan_daedalus_5.0.0_amd64_desktop.iso
34003ad127caf1b9ce45c44ef56b4f42d02df517dd51490474d3ec5b5d6d1513 devuan_daedalus_5.0.0_amd64_netinstall.iso
30b46a37e01cd10e8478e019b770d12c62fcb73baa081bd2f4c73c917b7365dc devuan_daedalus_5.0.0_amd64_pool1.iso
22500b82584d99de81ba7e037b2e95442d5ac92c891e751b2fbab91fddedda77 devuan_daedalus_5.0.0_amd64_server.iso
3b1030aaa37633c07e354d0bccc4a13425f007733a18c45f9570e08c8932e647 devuan_daedalus_5.0.0_i386_cd2.iso
f6107b1b3924fc1a633d1827e2a58eace6845051c1aa1fb8e0273a5f12712133 devuan_daedalus_5.0.0_i386_cd3.iso
22d5df97a16a13b6473e2a4ae9fcd1bd3cb0dc4231d4c0c5c382051de8c0ae0d devuan_daedalus_5.0.0_i386_cd4.iso
a1ab3d10d0e356088ebeaf4c09ffdcbca6ede88c32b01286c869190d38eede0b devuan_daedalus_5.0.0_i386_desktop.iso
75269c8f40ff315f72c6b420b3f1893281aa03f0aab74fb5baa7df23e6fafca7 devuan_daedalus_5.0.0_i386_netinstall.iso
19a564a31b030aba5b657bff5157f2a88eff01d2d866f67b3c0bc4a771438ecc devuan_daedalus_5.0.0_i386_pool1.iso
27c4f78be32fcfeaf5c58e1f83a2494c5056eaf48a7cd03c4baf5387617b5f3e devuan_daedalus_5.0.0_i386_server.iso
1f1fc3431af3b8c2d9243b8f7c0961d9cb0f7594a50ecf4854ec3e04d000b3d4 devuan_daedalus_5.0.0_amd64_minimal-live.iso
5edc569b07e6a276293995bc1828b0be5a2c4f95d8e00bfb4e8fdb70c8d81f4b devuan_daedalus_5.0.0_i386_minimal-live.iso

 Happy downloading!


Get Devuan GNU+Linux 5 Daedalus

Release Announcement

Release Notes

Daedalus on Distrowatch

Devuan on Wikipedia 



This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

LibreOffice Calc: Create and Use Filters

Thursday 17th of August 2023 04:28:00 PM

This tutorial will help you work with Filters feature in LibreOffice Calc (an alternative to Microsoft Excel) to create and use them. This feature, also known as AutoFilter, can help filtering and sorting out data in certain ways. You can download the document example below and go practice immediately. Now let's exercise!

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Type this dataset and save it as calc-data-filters.ods and give the worksheet name FILTERS. Alternatively, download the document file below. However, this dataset is almost similar to the one we used previously in Calc VII VLOOKUP.



Creating Filters 


1. Select cells from A1 to H1 (e.g. from "ID" to "SOCIAL").

2. Go to menu Data -> AutoFilter.

3. Filters created in the top of all columns.


Using Filters

As an example, let's show only female students out of the dataset: 

1. Click arrow button in the GENDER.

2. Check FEMALE option.

3. Uncheck MALE option.


4. Data filtered out to show only female students. Notice a dot sign appeared in the button when filter is active.

5. To show male students instead, do the above in reverse. 

6. To disable a filter, click cross [X] button and make sure all options checked. 

Showing only female students:

Showing only male students:

Using Filters for Numerical Data 

Another example is to filter out students' ID numbers and scores in several ways. 

Sort out students reversely:

From the original data ABI on top and CLAUDIA on bottom.

1. Click ID arrow button.

2. Filter will show under ID. 

3. Select Sort Descending. 

4. Data will be sorted out reversely with CLAUDIA on first place and ABI on last place.  


Show top ten scores:

From the original data with no active filters:

1. Click ENGLISH arrow button.

2. Filter will show under ENGLISH. 

3. Select Top 10 option.

4. Select Sort Descending option (optional).

4. Data will be filtered out with ten best scores in English with CINTA on first place (100) and AHMAD on last place (76). 

Using Filters in Combination 


For example, we want to filter out MALE students from CITY A only. 

1. Select filter MALE under GENDER.

2. Select filter CITY A under ADDRESS.

3. Data will be filtered out to show only DONI, BAYU, and ABI

4. To revert back to normal, disable the two filters.

To this point, you've learned about basic use of Filters with examples. Next time, you can continue your study to exercise Pivot Table or choose your lesson from our Calc Collection. See you next time!


This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

Install LibreCAD on Ubuntu - A Useful Software for 2D Architects

Thursday 17th of August 2023 02:55:00 PM

LibreCAD is a 2D computer aided design software for architectural, mechanical and technical drawing. Its default document format is DXF the same as AutoCAD and it is developed actively and supported by an excellent community providing examples you can learn at home. Now let's learn LibreCAD!

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Command to install LibreCAD application:


Run Terminal and type command below and press Enter:

$ sudo apt install librecad



LibreCAD opening a house drawing (AutoCAD dxf format):



LibreCAD can also be used for electronic schematic design like below: 

LibreCAD can also open, edit and save AutoCAD dxf documents available freely on the internet like a fighter jet design (F-14) below:


On Ubuntu 20.04 Focal Fossa for example, available LibreCAD version is 2.1.3 from universe repository.


Download sample documents:


LibreCAD examples can be found in the official wiki and in the forum by the community. Outside of that, you can download thousands of DXF documents from well-known websites like DXF Downloads, CAD Nav, Open 3D Model, Free 3D and many more. As for DWG format, in general you will need a converter to DXF first to work with it.



Official Website

LibreCAD on Wikipedia

This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

LibreOffice Calc Productive Exercises for Students and Workers

Wednesday 16th of August 2023 02:01:00 PM

This collection of tutorials will help you learn LibreOffice Calc like Microsoft Excel. We published these gradually since 2022 and is still continuing. We hope these helps you all regardless your occupation being a student, a teacher or a worker. Happy studying!

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Basic Functions


SUM, AVERAGE, COUNT - learn by exercises about how to take sum, average, and count of a series of numerical data e.g. students' scores.

IF, COUNTIF, SUMIF - learn by exercises about automatic decision making with if, countif, and sumif e.g. evaluating students' grades by pass or fail.

LEFT, MID, RIGHT - learn by exercises about manipulating text e.g. taking first, middle and last name.

MIN, MAX - learn by exercises about counting number of characters of a text e.g. how long a name is.

VLOOKUP - learn by exercises about vertical search of a series of data e.g. choosing a student name will show his/her scores.

HLOOKUP -- learn by exercises about horizontal version of vlookup.

Basic Data Input


Data Entry Form -- learn by exercises about showing data entry form and doing data input by typing.

Basic Works


Create Chart -- learn by exercises about making charts out of data in LibreOffice Calc.

Create Mail Merge (with Writer) -- learn by exercises about writing identical letters --like student report card, invitations or invoices-- for different recipients.

Create Pivot Table -- learn by exercises about recreating and representing data in different formats according to user's needs. 

Convert Number to Text -- learn by exercises about translating numbers to text e.g. similar to what you find on receipt papers such as $100 means one hundred dollars.

Create and Use Filters -- to be arrived.


Basic Adoptions 


From Excel Documents to Calc Templates -- the fastest way to learn LibreOffice Calc in our opinion is to adopt existing Excel documents into Calc. This way, we have more than enough resources and do not need to create everything from zero.

Excel and Calc Resources 


Vertex42 --  in our opinion, the number one resource and provider of Excel documents (let's call it Calc documents). They provide a wide range of documents for almost all purposes you will need, such as, invoices, money management, financial statements as well as charting and many more. 


This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

Recommended Games on Debian 12 Bookworm

Saturday 12th of August 2023 06:54:00 AM

We collected ten games you can play on Debian 12 Bookworm GNU/Linux. They are all native games provided by Debian themselves and they are free software. You can immediately install and play these games by following command lines we provided under each one below. As a premiere bonus, we can also learn a lot of lessons about free software community so you can spread education about free software by playing with students at your school or friends at your office. Now choose your game and let's play!

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We often mention the term 'free software' in this article. When we talk about free software, we do not mean price, but we mean freedom, meaning the user is free, that the user have the full rights to control the software (thus, the game) both individually and socially. This meaning aligns with Debian principles. See Free Software Definition

1. Red Eclipse


Number one is Red Eclipse. It is a first-person shooter (FPS) game in 3D can be played in single, multiplayer, as well as online mode. It has many modes, many weapons, featured map editor and is highly customizable. Historically, it was taken, maintained, developed from the last free software version of another game called Nexuiz (now proprietary). To play, select offline practice mode -> select a gameplay mode e.g. deathmatch -> select a mutator e.g. multi so you can play in teams -> select a map choice -> click start a new game -> use right-click to enter the fight. On Debian 12 Bookworm, the game version available is 1.6 "Sunset Edition". Thank you Red Eclipse developers for maintaining the free software Nexuiz.

$ sudo apt install redeclipse

 [ RedEclipse Homepage ]

2. OpenArena


Number two is OpenArena. It is an FPS like Red Eclipse, but it was developed as a full game based on free software version of Quake Engine (liberated by idTech in 1999 and 2001). It can be played both alone and multiplayer either fighting against bots or humans. On Bookworm, the game version available is 2012. To start playing, select multiplayer -> create -> select an arena -> enable bots as many as you want -> fight. Thank you idTech and John Carmark for liberating the engines. Thank you OpenArena project for developing the game.


$ sudo apt install openarena

[ OpenArena Homepage ]

3. Warzone 2100


Number three is Warzone 2100. It is a real-time strategy (RTS) game and it was a PlayStation game in the past, previously proprietary, and fortunately since 2004 (same year as Ubuntu first release) it was liberated under GNU GPL license. It can be played alone, multiplayer as well as online. You will build a base, produce tanks and robots and fighter jets, then attack all of your enemy bases until you win. On Bookworm, the game version is 4.3.3. Thank you Pumpkin Studios and Eidos for liberating Warzone 2100 as free software.


$ sudo apt install warzone2100 


 [ Warzone 2100 Homepage ]

4. BillardGL


Number four is BillardGL. It is a billiards (also known as pool, cue balls, or snooker) game in 3D. It can be played along or with friends and it features a tutorial too. To start playing, select Two Players mode -> select 8-ball or 9-ball mode -> play pressing Space key and holding it to hit the white ball. The game is developed in C++ language and Glut Library. On Bookworm, the game version is 1.7. Thank you BillardGL developers and Debian Maintainers for providing the game.

$ sudo apt install billard-gl


 [ BillardGL Homepage (archived) ]

5. Nibbles


Number five is Nibbles. As you can guess already, it is a worm game with multiplayer mode. Historically, it is very similar to an MS-DOS game with same name released in 1991. It is part of GNOME Games along with Chess and the others. In Nibbles, you move a worm with arrow keys to eat up meals and become longer by avoiding other worms and the walls. You should complete 26 levels to finish the game. This game is preinstalled. Thank you GNOME Developers and Debian Maintainers for providing the game.

 [ Nibbles Homepage

6. Super Tux Kart


Number six is Super Tux Kart. It is a racing game similar to Crash Team Racing, but ultimately unique with free software mascots as the characters. You can play this game with your kid in multiplayer mode side-by-side. To start playing one player,  select Singleplayer -> select a kart e.g. Wilber of Gimp or Kiki of Krita -> select a level e.g. Novice -> select game mode e.g. Normal -> select a track e.g. Volcan Island (the one with beach and spiral road -> fill number of AI karts (your enemies) e.g. five -> start race. In future generations, this game has potentials to introduce free software to  children through playing.  Thank you Super Tux Kart developers for developing the game.


$ sudo apt install supertuxkart


 [ SuperTuxKart Homepage ]

7. Scorched 3D


Number seven is Scorched 3D. It is a turn-based strategy (TBS) military tank fighting game (also known as artillery game) similar to another game called Scorched Earth (proprietary). In Scorched 3D, you will play as a tank, buy some weapons, and turn by turn shooting with another tanks until you win.  To play, use arrow keys to aim and and spacebar to fire.

$ sudo apt install scorched3d 


[ Scorched3D Homepage ]

8. FreeCiv


Number eight is FreeCiv (not to be confused with FreeCol). It is a TBS game based on old game Sid Meier's Civilization (proprietary), originally developed by SGI on IRIX system, now considered as one of the best free/libre open source software game, and it is used in real academic researches. In FreeCiv, you play as a leader of a nation, build a country, develop technologies, raise a civilization over years, and wage war against other countries or be the first one to launch space colonization. To start playing, it is advised that you run FreeCiv -> start scenario game -> tutorial -> start -> follow everything the tutorial tells you to play. Thank you SGI and FreeCiv Team for making a free software and better version of Civilization.

$ sudo apt install freeciv


[ FreeCiv Homepage ]

9. Megaglest


Number nine is MegaGlest. It is an RTS with role-playing game (RPG) elements with colors and appearance any Warcraft player will immediately familiar with. MegaGlest can play in single, multiplayer and online mode. In MegaGlest, you will play in a fantasy world as one of several factions namely magic, tech, indian, egypt, norsemen, persian, and roman. Megaglest is an excellent example among games in software freedom, such as, how the project can successfully continue a discontinued one (think about OpenArena), proud with its own community (see gplv3 and osi logos on its welcome screen for example), and they can make a good game by only using freely licensed data as well as open standard formats like ogg for sound. Thank you MegaGlest Project for maintaining Glest legacy of free software game.

$ sudo apt install megaglest


[ MegaGlest Homepage ]

10. FreeDoom


Finally, number ten is FreeDoom. Once installed, you can find DSDA Doom and Phase 1, and Phase 2 game names on your application menu. To play it, use Esc to show the menu and select "New Game" by pressing Enter. In Doom, you should fight against monsters and zombies by shooting them all until you completed a mission. You can save and reload your adventure from the menu. The valuable thing we can learn from it is that the developer said "Just as the GNU project was started to develop a free operating system to replace Unix, we aim to provide a free replacement for Doom." Thank you idTech (once again) for freeing Doom Engine and FreeDoom Project for creating the free replacement.


$ sudo apt install freedoom


 [ FreeDoom Homepage ]  ****

This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

Install FreeCAD on Ubuntu - An Excellent Software for Architects, Manufacturers and Hobbyists

Tuesday 8th of August 2023 09:01:00 AM

FreeCAD is a 2D and 3D computer aided design software for architectural, mechanical and technical drawings. Today, FreeCAD is used by architects to draw house/building, manufacturers to produce parts with CNC machines, as well as hobbyists to create things with 3D printers. It is licensed under GNU LGPL license and available gratis on Ubuntu.

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Command to install FreeCAD application:


Run Terminal and type command below and press Enter:

$ sudo apt install freecad



FreeCAD opening a building architecture design (FreeCAD format):

FreeCAD opening a house design sketch:


On Ubuntu 20.04 Focal Fossa for example, available FreeCAD version is 0.18.4 from universe repository.


Download sample documents:

FreeCAD is a long living, very popular program and is supported by large professional community like OSArch. That means there are a lot of example documents can be downloaded to learn it. See Yorik's architectural projects (download here) or FreeCAD Forum Community (download here) or OSArch (download examples) or GrabCAD (download here).


FreeCAD tutorials (official)

FreeCAD articles by Hackaday

3D printing turorials by All3DP

FreeCAD tutorial blog

Creating 3D printed artwork by Eheidi

From a 2d sketch to 3D print by Materialise

This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

How To Configure Tor Socks Proxy on Debian 12 and Ubuntu 22.04

Monday 7th of August 2023 02:54:00 PM

This tutorial will help you setup The Onion Router (TOR) anonymity software on your computer system with Debian 12 or Ubuntu 22.04 for use as a proxy with browser and any other internet-based applications you want. Please note that Tor works using address "localhost" and port number "9050". Enjoy!


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To enable Tor proxy on Debian 12 and and enable application such as Firefox browser or command lines to connect to the internet via Tor.

0. Install GNU wget and apt-transport-https  


First thing to do is to login as root and install two tools required for this setup.

$ sudo -i
# apt-get install wget apt-transport-https 


1. Add Tor Repository


Use your text editor (we use nano) to create and edit /etc/apt/sources.list/tor.list text file with the following 2 lines content:


For Debian 12 Bookworm:

deb     [signed-by=/usr/share/keyrings/tor-archive-keyring.gpg] bookworm main
deb-src [signed-by=/usr/share/keyrings/tor-archive-keyring.gpg] bookworm main


For Ubuntu 22.04 Jammy Jellyfish:

deb     [signed-by=/usr/share/keyrings/tor-archive-keyring.gpg] jammy main
deb-src [signed-by=/usr/share/keyrings/tor-archive-keyring.gpg] jammy main


If you are not sure what is your OS version's codename, check it up with lsb_release -c command line.

2. Install Tor Proxy Software


Once Tor Debian repository is set, you can install Tor software package using three of command lines below. Please remember that here we use GNU wget to get a GnuPG identity to make sure packages downloaded are authentic from The Tor Project.


# wget -qO- | gpg --dearmor | tee /usr/share/keyrings/tor-archive-keyring.gpg >/dev/null
# apt update
# apt install tor

3. Configure Tor and System


Make sure tor service is enabled and running using your Terminal. Don't forget to exit from administrator account.

# systemctl enable --now tor
# systemctl status tor
# exit


Configure your proxy settings via System Settings under SOCKS option. 

  • Run Settings. 
  • Open Network section. 
  • Click Proxy "gear" button. 
  • Network Proxy dialog will appear and fill in:
  • Socks host: localhost
  • Port number: 9050
  • Close

4. Verify Tor is Working


You can confirm if you are connected to the internet via Tor proxy by various methods. 

From your web browser (we use Firefox) you can go to: and you should see the page says "Congratulations!" instead of "Sorry". See picture below.

From your browser too, now you should be able to visit any .onion website (known also as the Dark Web) such as the onion version of Duckduckgo Search Engine. Please note that a proper onion address is now consisted of 56 character length (also known as V3).

From your Terminal, you can utilize curl command line below to confirm your connection via Tor proxy successful. Thank you ki9 from StackExchange for making this command line.

$ curl --socks5 localhost:9050 --socks5-hostname localhost:9050 -s | cat | grep -m 1 Congratulations | xargs

This is the goal of our configuration. If you reached this, you finished the configuration successfully. 


5. Disable Tor Proxy


To disable Tor proxy, in general it is equal to simply disable SOCKS proxy utilization in the System Settings

  • Run Settings.
  • Open Network section.
  • Click Proxy "gear" button. 
  • Select Disabled.
  • Close. 


6. Uninstall Tor Proxy Software


Finally, if you want to remove Tor software from your system, that's basically reverting back everything we did above by command lines below. 

$ sudo apt remove tor
$ sudo rm /etc/apt/sources.list/tor.list
$ sudo apt update




How to check if Tor is working and debug the problem on CLI?

I cannot connect to X.onion!

Debian Repository

This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

How To Enable DNS Over TLS on Debian 12 Bookworm

Tuesday 25th of July 2023 03:53:00 PM

This tutorial will help you setup DoT (short for DNS over TLS) security into your Debian 12 Bookworm. With this, we hope you will have a very secure internet access so nobody can forcefully block or redirect your browsing activities in the middle especially for your dns line. This article complements our both Debian 12 Install Guide and After Install Recommendation. We choose here a secure public dns service that serves DoT --Quad9 from Swiss-- to replace our internet service provider's one which does not support it. We hope this will be helpful for you.


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 Requirements You are required to choose a secure DNS over TLS (DoT) service that provides you IP addresses to replace default IP address given by your internet service provider. There are many of such provider such as Quad9, NextDNS, DNS.SB, etc. We use in this article Quad9 service with their two IP addresses:
 1. Install bind9

On our Debian Bookworm, the required tools like 'dig' are not yet installed built-in so we need to install them manually:

$ sudo apt install bind9-dnsutils

2. Install systemd-resolved

On Debian Bookworm we installed (live gnome edition), the required software package 'systemd-resolved' is not installed so we should do it:

$ sudo apt-get install systemd-resolved
$ sudo systemctl enable --now systemd-resolved


3. Configure System DNS Settings


3.1. Via Terminal

Now we need to edit resolved.conf text file of systemd-resolved:

$ sudo nano /etc/systemd/resolved.conf

For example if we use Quad9 DNS, then the resolved.conf content will look like below:


Viewed from Terminal, it will look like below. Read the white lines without beginning hashtags. Please ignore any unrelated lines. 


3.2. Via Graphical User Interface (GUI)

We also need to edit DNS addresses in the graphical network manager if we use Debian 12 GNOME Desktop. 

  • Click network icon to the top panel. 
  • Click All Network. 
  • System Settings will show 'Wifi' or 'Network' configuration. 
  • Click gear icon to the currently connected network. For example, ours is "aming".
  • A configuration dialog will show.
  • Open IPv4 tab. 
  • Disable "Automatic" option on DNS section.
  • Fill in DNS addresses into DNS input box. See picture below.
  • Click Apply. 
  • Do this for every network you are usually connected to such as wifi, cable network, usb tethering etc.

4. Enable DNS
To enable DNS security, you can either restart your system or simply restart the service like example below.
$ sudo systemctl restart systemd-resolved

5. Confirm if DoT is working 
5.1. Using Firefox

Visit and you should see the page says "Yes, you ARE using quad9" meaning your DNS is secure i.e. encrypted over TLS. 


5.2. Using Terminal 

If we use Quad9 addresses, run command lines below and they should show replies from Quad9 servers like shown below. Otherwise, your DNS over TLS is failed and you should reconfigure it.

First command and expected result if it works:

$ dig +short txt

Second command and expected result if it works:

$ dig +short txt

 Third command and expected result if it works:

$ resolvectl status 
Link 4 (enx023137500552)
    Current Scopes: DNS LLMNR/IPv4 LLMNR/IPv6 mDNS/IPv4 mDNS/IPv6
         Protocols: +DefaultRoute +LLMNR +mDNS +DNSOverTLS DNSSEC=yes/supported
Current DNS Server:
       DNS Servers:

Picture below shows how these three commands confirm DNS over TLS is working as expected. 

6. Enable or Disable DoT

To enable DoT, finish step number 3 to 5. 

To disable DoT, basically you need to reverse what you did in step number 3 to 5 back to its default configuration. Simply write a hashtag in beginning of every edited line like below.


That's all the configuration. Happy browsing!

 Protocol Test - Confirm on which Protocol Quad9 received your query (by Quad9)
 How To Find Out DNS Server IP Address Used By My Router (by Nixcraft) How to set DNS over TLS on GNU/Linux (by DNSSB)

This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

What To Do After Installing Debian 12 Bookworm

Wednesday 19th of July 2023 06:41:00 PM

This advisory tutorial will help your first time using your computer powered with Debian 12. This tutorial complements our previous Debian 12 GNOME Install Guide we practiced together. We compiled five simple tips and tricks below for you. Happy working with Debian!

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A. Basic Preparations


Touchpad got reversed? Make it normal again: open Settings → Touchpad → disable Natural Scrolling → close.

Wifi not working? First aid is to use USB tethering: pick up your phone → connect it to laptop via USB cable → go to phone's Settings → enable USB tethering → laptop connected to the internet.

Terminal key? For long a time Ubuntu user, we want to open it by simply pressing Ctrl+Alt+T but Debian doesn't do it. To take it back: Settings → Keyboard Shortcuts → click Plus button to bottom → give it name Terminal → give it command 'gnome-terminal' without quotes → click Shortcut button > press Ctrl and Alt and T keys simultaneously → OK → Apply.  
Software updates? First time working with Debian requires you to update your software system. To do so, run your Terminal and type the following command lines followed by Enter. You might need a few gigabytes download for this one.
$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt upgrade 
$ sudo apt dist-upgrade

Once finished, you will be ready to install further programs and games from more than 10,000 software packages distributed by Debian 12. Just see your Software from applications menu.


 (An example of Software Manager showing FreeCAD a 3D computer aided design program that works with CNC machines)

B. Browser and Privacy

Debian 12 includes Firefox ESR web browser. 

Want more privacy? We strongly recommends DNS encryption for everyone. You can do it by hitting menu → Settings → type "dns" into search box → see section Enable Secure DNS → select Increased Protection → select provider "NextDNS" → close Settings. For your information, this security technology is called DNS over HTTPS.

Need titlebar? Take it back: right-click browser window to the top → Customize... → enable Title Bar to the bottom → Done. This will bring back normal title bar so you can easily work with browser window as usual.

C. Multimedia and Games


Debian 12 can play MP3 and MP4 already therefore no need to install additional codecs anymore. However, if you work with multimedia everyday we have recommendations below:

OBS Studio: sudo apt-get install obs-studio

The tool every teacher and YouTube livestreamer would use. 


OpenShot: sudo apt-get install openshot

To video editor that is simple to use similar to Windows Movie Maker.

D. Email


Evolution Mail Client is your email app. Whatever your email service is (Gmail or Yahoo! or AOL) you can set them up with Evolution. 


To configure your email app: run Evolution →  Welcome to Evolution! → click next buttons to the email username and IMAP settings → enter your email address for example and your name → let it automatically setup them for you → it will ask for your email account's password → type it → OK → system will ask about keyring passwords → just click OK → finished. For Gmail, you might be asked for verification via several more windows. Once setup done, Evolution will show your emails. 


E. Dualbooting with Windows

One thing a Debian user ought to know is that Debian provides replacements to proprietary fonts you already know from Windows:

  • FreeSerif = Times New Roman
  • FreeSans = Arial or Calibri
  • FreeMono = Courier New


However, if you are forced to use mentioned Windows fonts in your school or office, consider to copy the files with .ttf extensions from C: partition under Fonts folder and paste them to your Debian's Home in the .fonts folder.


Good luck!

This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.


Practically Useful YouTube-DL Command List

Thursday 6th of July 2023 07:32:00 AM

This tutorial will help you download YouTube videos in practical ways, easy and useful using youtube-dl command line. We compile here eight most needed command lines you can everyone can quickly practice without any you don't need. Now let's try it out and happy downloading!

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1. Read video information


This command:

$ youtube-dl -F URL

will show output like below in Terminal:

which means this selected video is available in several different choices particularly audio-only, video-only, or full video in different quality and different file size. You can observe as it offers webm and mp4 choices, up to 3000x2000 quality, and up to 3 GigaByte file size. Please note that other videos could be different in these choices.

2. Download a video


This is the basic command:

$ youtube-dl URL

and it will show output like below in Terminal:

 and as a result the video file is found in your file manager:

And finally you can play the video like our first screenshot above. 

3. Download several videos


This command:

$ youtube-dl URL URL URL URL ... URL

will download all mentioned videos one by one. For example, if you want to grab recipe videos of pancake, cupcake and fruit cake you can do it as the following example:


4. Download audio only or a select video quality


First, read the detailed information of a video:

$ youtube-dl -F URL

Second, download a select video by its code to the left column. Notice the difference between uppercase 'F' and lowercase 'f'.

$ youtube-dl -f CODE URL

for example if you want to download video+audio in small size:

and in case you want to download audio only:

Please note that not all videos will have full options like video above as some do not offer  'audio-only' options. You may find some of them sooner of later.

5. Download an entire playlist and specify max file size


These commands:

$ youtube-dl PLAYLIST_URL 
$ youtube-dl -f 'bestvideo[filesize<10M]' PLAYLIST_URL

will download all videos in a playlist. The difference is that the first one will do it in best quality and biggest file size (longest time to finish) while the second one do it with a specified file size treshold as small as possible (quickest time to finish). In this example, we grab an entire playlist only for videos under 10 MegaBytes. These are very useful to grab multiple videos from your favorite playlist.

6. Download subtitles


You can also download subtitle of the video, if any.

$ youtube-dl --list-subs URL
$ youtube-dl --write-sub URL
$ youtube-dl --write-auto-sub URL


First command prints out available subtitles of a video. If none available, it prints none. Second command will download the subtitle as a file (choices of format: .vtt .ttml .srv .json). Third command will download the subtitle if second one cannot. You can add --sub-lang en to grab specifically English language only.  For other language, you can swap 'en' with other language code like 'id' or 'jp' if any. See picture below.

Above is VLC Media Player playing the video originally in English by adding Indonesian subtitle (ID). To do it like this, after you have the subtitle file, open the video in VLC -> pick menu Subtitle -> Add subtitle file -> pick the file -> OK -> video now plays with subtitle.

7. Download a list of multiple videos


You can also download all videos mentioned in a text file.

$ youtube-dl -a FILE.TXT

For example, below we created a text file (list.txt) containing five lines of URLs (top-right) highlighted in blue and we call it with youtube-dl. As a result, we downloaded five videos about yummy donut cooking.

8. Update youtube-dl


Lastly, because it deals with a service, youtube-dl (as the software) must be updated to the latest. Otherwise, YouTube (as the service) might change its behavior making older version of youtube-dl could not download it anymore. To do so, the developer team explained an easy command line:

$ pip install --upgrade --force-reinstall "git+"


Official Website

Cheatsheet by Igor Chubin

Cheatsheet by Steve Thompson

Format Code List by Voussoir 

Download only subtitles by Our Tech Room

Download subtitles at StackOverflow 

Updating youtube-dl with pip at GitHub

This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

Easy Guide to use Snap for Ubuntu Users

Wednesday 5th of July 2023 03:17:00 PM

This tutorial will help you in using Snap Package Manager on your Ubuntu desktop, server and laptop. With Snap, you can install, update, remove and manage software applications as well as games available via supported by Canonical the United Kingdom company behind Ubuntu. Now we want to start with the examples included. Enjoy!

  (Nextcloud server and Xonotic shooting game running as Snaps)

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What you can do with Snaps 


Snap is a new software package format and way to add/remove programs invented by Canonical for Ubuntu. Since 2018, it is preinstalled on Ubuntu system alongside older software package format/method DEB/APT. More precisely, if you are now using Ubuntu (version 18.04, 20.04, 22.04 and later) or Zorin OS or KDE Neon, then now you have Snap already in your system. For this, we write this article.

Basically, with Snap you can install, update, remove applications and games just like what you can do everyday with DEB. For more information, please read the official website

To exercise with Snap, read sections number 1 to 8 below. 

1. Reading information


First thing to do is to read:

$ snap list --all
$ snap info firefox

First command will show you all installed Snaps on your system. Second one will show you Snap package size and version of firefox. See output examples below. 

In this output, we can observe that our computer running Ubuntu has some 14 Snap packages listed in a table from the first 'bare' to the last 'xonotic'.

We pick one Snap package namely 'firefox' to read its full information as the following. From this output we know information as the following:

  • Program name: Firefox
  • Publisher: Mozilla Foundation
  • Description: web browser
  • License: unset
  • Installed version: 114
  • Installed size: 256MB
  • Revision number: 2800
  • Available versions: 115, 116, 117


2. Searching for applications


Take three examples below:

$ snap search office
$ snap search server
$ snap search game

From the first command, we observe that both LibreOffice and OnlyOffice are available among the results.

From the second command, we observe Snap packages for server and networking related purposes like RocketChatServer, Nextcloud, Jenkins and several others. Searching further may give us Grafana, Prometheus, OpenStack etc.

3. Installing application


Pay attention to these first two commands:

$ snap install obs-studio
$ snap install nextcloud
$ snap run obs-studio
$ snap run nextcloud

The first will install OBS Studio, a desktop application. The second will install Nextcloud, a server application. To run a Snap application, do like the third or fourth command.

4. Updating application


Pay attention to these two commands:

$ snap refresh
$ snap refresh firefox

First one will update all installed Snap applications in the system. Second one will just update selected package namely 'firefox'.


5. Removing application 


To uninstall Snap packages:

$ snap remove nextcloud
$ snap remove nextcloud obs-studio rocketchat-server

First command will remove one package namely 'nextcloud'. Second one will remove multiple packages along with it namely 'obs-studio' and 'rocketchat-server' packages.

6. Installing and removing a version of an application
With Snap, it is possible for publisher to publish an application in multiple different versions and for user to pick a particular version of that application.
$ snap list --all
$ snap remove firefox --revision 1234
$ snap list --all | grep -i firefox

First command will show all Snaps and all revisions installed on your system. Second command will uninstall Snap package name firefox which the revision number is 1234. Use third command to filter 'firefox' out of the result.


7. Stop automatic updates


Take these two examples:

$ snap refresh --hold
$ snap refresh --unhold

By default, all Snaps update automatically in the background and it is generally a good thing, but this causes issues for Ubuntu users with limited internet access. If you want to disable automatic updates, do the first command. To enable it again, do the second. Either way, without automatic updates you can still update Snap packages manually.

8. Maintain snap services


Outside of Snap command, one might need to control Snap services runing in the background.

$ sudo systemctl mask --now snapd
$ sudo systemctl unmask --now snapd

First command will permanently disable and stop snapd (the actual daemon that allows snap to run). Second one will enable and start snapd again. Please note that once disabled, any Snap application or game will not be able to run.

Useful tips and tricks


When you don't know what to do:

You can visit Snap documentation website especially the Quickstart Guide section. They have comprehensive guides for new users. See references for the link.

When your disk is full

Use baobab to discover which Snaps take disk space the most -> remove revisions which are not used anymore or noted as "disabled" under Notes column. This can help you manage and remove which ones if you should.

Use info reading (see section 1) to find out disk space used by each of Snap applications.

Note that Snap packages are installed into the directory /var/lib/snapd/snaps. You can compare file size between Snap packages in this directory using baobab.

That's all, happy managing your software with Snap!


Snap Official User Guide

Snap (software) on Wikipedia 

This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

Beginner's Guide to Hard Disk Partitioning Basics with GParted

Tuesday 4th of July 2023 03:36:00 PM

This tutorial will help you maintain your computer's hard disk drive using GParted made easy to practice for both Ubuntu (GNU/Linux) and Windows users. We included here only actions needed by most computer users such as reading the information, formatting, deleting, unmounting and labelling. We hope this is suitable for everyone who wants to install systems in dualboot mode as well as reformatting any partition they need to in any kind of disk storages. Let's practice and good luck!

Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates. Requirements 


- A computer 

- A GParted program

- An Ubuntu livecd or liveusb

- If you have Ubuntu livecd, GParted is already included inside.

How to practice this tutorial 


You can practice this tutorial in any of two methods:

First is to format disk partitions from a running Ubuntu installed in same computer. If you don't have GParted yet, install it by command line $ sudo apt install gparted. You can format everything except the partition where the Ubuntu system is installed. We call this internal method. 

Second is to format disk partitions from a livecd or liveusb of Ubuntu running. This method allows you to do all the disk actions explained below including the exception above. To do this, you should have an Ubuntu livecd (read this tutorial to have one). We call this external method.

1. Read and identify disk drives


First thing to do is to read the information.  

To center-top, the titlebar will always show what hard disk drive selected at the moment GParted running (in this example /dev/sda). 

To top-right, the selector will show currently selected hard disk (in this example /dev/sda) and it should be the same as the titlebar. 

To left column, if you enabled View -> Device Information, you can read more details about currently selected hard disk drive. In this example, our drive is ATA QEMU HARDDISK by 20GibiByte size and GPT partition table.

In the main area, there is the table of contents of currently selected hard disk drive. It has 6 columns ranging from Partition, File System, Size, Used, Unused, and Flags. In this example, currently we have an unallocated space in our hard disk [sda].

2. Write Partition Table 


To write partition table into a disk, first select a disk drive to top-right corner. Then pick GParted menu Device -> Partition Table -> select one choice -> OK. Please note this will erase all data in the storage along with all partitions if any.

Choice 1: msdos, also known as Master Boot Record (MBR), suitable for hard disk drive under 2TB or a 32-bit operating system installation (typically older technology from 2011 backwards).

Choice 2: gpt, short for GUID Partition Table, suitable for hard disk drive over 2TB or a 64-bit operating system installation especially for newer technology from 2012 onwards.

3. Create a new partition


To create a partition in a disk drive, select an unallocated space -> right-click -> New ->  Format dialog will show like below.

In the formatting dialog, select one file system choice (see below) -> OK -> dialog closed -> click Apply in the toolbar -> OK -> finished.

Choices of file systems:

EXT4 is for Ubuntu and GNU/Linux system disk as well as data disk drives. 

EXT2 is like EXT4 but more suitable if you install the OS into usb flash drive as hard disk replacement. Many of our tutorials make use of this one.

NTFS is for Windows system disk as well as data disk drives. 

FAT32 is for usb flash drive. 

LINUX-SWAP is for swap partition used with Ubuntu or any GNU/Linux system. 

4. Delete an existing partition


To delete a partition in a disk drive, select the partition -> right-click -> Delete -> click Apply on the toolbar -> -> confirmation dialog will show -> select Apply -> partition deleted -> partition now became unallocated. Please note this will erase all data in the partition.


5. Format an existing partition


To format an existing partition in a disk drive is to write a new filesystem into a partition except added with a step, that is, Unmount. It means to release active partition so that it is ready to be formatted (otherwise it is cannot). To format an existing partition, first right-click a partition -> Unmount -> partition unmounted -> delete it (see section 4). Then, create a new partition (see section 3) from the unallocated. The choices of filesystem are explained already above (see section 3). Please note formatting will erase all data in the partition.

6. Format an entire hard disk or SSD or flash drive

To format an entire storage is to write a new partition table into it. Please note this will erase all data in the storage. To do so, select a disk drive from the top-right selector and create new partition table (see section 2).


7. Rename disk partitions

Naming disk partitions strongly helps the user recognize and distinguish between his/her own disk partitions. For example, to quickly identify Ubuntu and Windows partitions in one computer, one should name them properly. See example below. You should be able to distinguish which one's Ubuntu's and which one's Windows', right?

To rename partitions for users, first Unmount them then right-click a partition -> Label File System -> dialog will show -> write a clear name like "C: Windows" for Windows partition -> OK -> close GParted -> open Nautilus file manager to see the results. See example below. 

8. Create swap partition 

This is for people who use computer with Ubuntu and GNU/Linux. To create swap partition is the same as creating any partition (see section 3 and 5). To do so, make sure you have enough unnalocated space and then right-click unallocated space -> New -> creation dialog will show -> select file system LINUX-SWAP -> OK -> dialog will close -> click Apply -> OK -> swap partition created.



GParted Official Website

GParted explained in Wikipedia

GParted User Manual

This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

How To Design Bulk ID Cards with Different Names and Photos with Inkscape

Friday 30th of June 2023 06:30:00 PM

This tutorial will explain designing with Inkscape Vector Graphics Editor to create multiple cards with different names and photos. You will need NextGenerator extension to practice this. This is useful to people who work at  office, as event organizer, or simply want to create similar thing. We tried our best to make this easy for you to exercise with funny examples. Happy drawing!


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About Design


Identity card (also known as employee card, student card, conference card) is a type of design printed with name, description, and/or photo in a piece of paper and usually hanged or clipped onto one's neck or pocket to identify one as an official staff in office work or events with many people. 

Sample Result We want to make a set of ten ID cards like below. Let's assume this is "IT Company" with three different occupations namely "Staff" and "Manager" and "Owner" each with own colors namely blue, red and green. We use here logos as example and you can later replace them with photos. We make this example very simple so everyone can easily exercise and this is just the first step.

Download Sample 


Click button below to take all sample files in one ZIP you can exercise with.



1. Inkscape vector graphic editor. 

2. NextGenerator extension. Read our tutorial to install it




What we need to make this design are as the following.

- a list of person names in CSV text file

- a design in an Inkscape SVG file

- a photo in PNG to be replaced with another photos

- a color in hexadecimal format to be replaced with another colors (optional)

- photo files in PNG


Basic Use


Basically, we will work around input and process and output with this.

As the input, we will make something like this in Inkscape (idcards.svg) and below it in LibreOffice Calc (list.csv). 

As the process, we need to configure NextGenerator like picture below.   

As the output, we will get ID cards exported into selected directory like below. Notice that these are very simple. We have not used any real photo yet nor any real template design. However, this should give you basic understanding on how to make them. You can observe, these cards follow exactly what we describe in the CSV file. For example, "Silvie" is the "Owner" and she gets "Red" background color with "Ardour" as photo etc.

Step 1. Making the data


Create a folder named idcards.

Run LibreOffice Calc. 

Write a data table of 10 employees like below. 

Save it as list.csv in the folder idcards.


Step 2. Preparing the photos


Fill the directory idcards with following files.

Prepare one picture file with the name firefox.png.

Prepare 10 pictures with the name ranging from 1.png to 10.png.


Step 3. Designing the card


Create a folder named results in idcards.

Run Inkscape. 

Create a design of card like the following. 

Save it as idcards.svg in the directory idcards.

Currently, you should have 13 files (csv, svg and png) in the directory.


Step 4. Exporting the ID cards


In Inkscape, pick Extensions -> Export -> NextGenerator

Fill the options like the following. 

Click Apply. 

Close the warning dialog if any. 

All cards will be saved in the directory results.

Final Result


Once finished, you should see ten ID cards in png format in the directory idcards. Your result will look similar to example given above. However, we modified the design a little and here's our final result. We added a Canonical logo, a pair of color shapes, and a hole circle. We use amusing photos everybody knows below all taken from We hope this gives you a lot of idea to make further designs. See you next time!


This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

How To Bulk Convert, Resize and Rotate Images on Ubuntu

Thursday 29th of June 2023 02:23:00 PM

This is one among many useful tips and tricks on Ubuntu for daily life. There is a utility named Converseen, that allows you to mass convert and rotate photos by clicks. This tutorial will help you to use the tool with examples so easy we hope everybody can follow. Now let's start exercising!

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Files, aka Nautilus, the name of Ubuntu file manager.

Converseen, the utility to do the job. 

Bulk conversion, aka mass conversion or converting multiple files, is an activity to manipulate multiple files (mostly pictures) at once with certain options.




Do this command line in your Terminal:

$ sudo apt-get install converseen

Once installed, run Converseen from your application menu. 


Sample Files


For better explanation, we present here a set of sample pictures in original PNG format. We use logos of various GNU/Linux distros here. They are from arch to zorin. We will manipulate these logo pictures using Converseen. We download them all from one place

Basic Use


Basically, what you first need to do is to import all pictures into Converseen.

1. Run Converseen from application menu.

2. At first run, Converseen will look like picture below.

 3. Run Files. 

4. Navigate to your pictures folder. 

5. Select all pictures you want to convert. 

6. Drag and drop pictures from Files window into Converseen. 

7. In Converseen window, click Check All. 

8. Now Converseen will look like below.

You are ready to batch convert them all.



What you will use the most in Converseen is the left sidebar aka Actions Panel. It is where all manipulation options belong. Except, the Conversion Formats panel is located at mid-bottom area of the window.

(Left panel: Dimensions tab, Rotate and Flip tab, Output Options,
Bottom panel: Conversion Formats)



Import all pictures to Converseen.

Select all pictures. 

Tick check mark to Image's directory under Output options in the left sidebar.

Select Convert to: from Conversion Formats panel to bottom. 

Select JPEG. 

Click Convert on the toolbar.

Converseen will show a progress bar dialog. 

Once finished, click Remove All to clean the job.

As a result, converted pictures will be available in the same directory as original pictures. See picture below. It shows the original in PNG and converted ones in JPEG. Notice the ones with black background.



Import all pictures to Converseen.

Select all pictures. 

Enable 'Rotate and Flip' tab on left panel. 

Select 'Vertically' or 'Horizontally' according to your need.

Tick check mark to Rename under Output options panel. 

Tick either 'Prefix/Suffix' or 'Progressive Number' option, otherwise tick Overwrite all if you want to replace all files.

Click Convert.

Once the process finished, the result will show in the directory. See example pictures below.

Vertical flip samples:

Horizontal flip samples:

Resizing (Dimension)


Import all pictures. 

Select all pictures. 

Enable 'Dimensions tab' on the left panel. 

Tick 'Scale image' option. 

Tick 'Maintain aspect ratio' option.

You can resize either way:

  • By percent (%) unit: fill for example 50% x 50% to shrink pictures half their dimension.
  • By pixel (px) unit: fill for example 64 x 64 to shrink pictures more or less to avatar dimension.

Click Convert.

Once the process finished, the result will show in the directory. See example below. We have three pictures with different dimensions (500, 600, 700) and the resulting pictures all 64 x 64 pixels.

Resizing (File Size) 

Converseen currently does not have Compress feature (unlike our favorite KDE KIM batch converter). This means, you cannot simply select a preset to make mass pictures size lower. However, compression can still be done with another way (aka manually) such as 

a) converting into a certain format,

b) shrinking the dimension, and / or

c) shrinking the resolution.


See previous screenshot and focus at the file size difference. 



Import all pictures into Converseen. 

Select all pictures.

Enable 'Rotation and flip' tab in the left panel. 

You can rotate pictures by several choices:

  • 90 degree to left
  • 90 degree to right
  • 180 degree

Click Convert.

Once the process finished, the result will show in the directory. See example pictures below.


That's all the basics. We hope this could help you who work in multimedia fields like graphic design, photography or simply daily life. Enjoy working with it.



Official Website

Source code (GNU GPL)

Donation and contribution page



This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

How To Install NextGenerator, An Inkscape Extension for Mail Merge with Photos

Tuesday 20th of June 2023 05:25:00 PM

This tutorial will help you add mail merge features to Inkscape by using NextGenerator extension. Its purpose is to automatically generate items like cards intended for different recipients with different photos, colors and more. Licensed under GNU GPL just like Inkscape, it is historically a successor to an extension named InkGenerator. Now let's do it.

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The old extension named InkGenerator is still available officially on Ubuntu repository by package name ink-generator. However, NextGenerator has not been available as a package so we need to install it manually until Ubuntu made it available.


Steps to install NextGenerator


1. Visit NextGenerator official web page.

We see it's now hosted at GitLab.


2. Download the source code from the web page. 

We click download button -> select ZIP -> download starts -> downloaded.  See picture above. 


3. Extract the ZIP file. 

We right-click the ZIP file -> Extract Here -> a folder created -> this folder name will read like this next_generator_2022.


4. Move NextGenerator folder into the folder of Inkscape extensions. 

If you want to install it for your own user, you can do this command line:

$ mv -v next_generator_xyz ~/.config/inkscape/extensions/

But if you want it for all users, you can do this instead:

$ sudo mv -v next_generator_xyz /usr/share/inkscape/extensions/

Where _xyz is the numbers part of the folder name. 


5. Restart Inkscape. 


6. Find the extension under menu Extensions -> Export -> NextGenerator. 

It is useful to note that the old extension, Ink Generator, was located differently under Misc -> Generator.



This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

How To Install Debian 12 "Bookworm" with Dualboot, UEFI and External Disk Methods

Wednesday 14th of June 2023 01:59:00 PM

This tutorial will help you installing Debian GNU/Linux 12 codenamed Bookworm into your computer. We picked the easiest method for this by using Live GNOME, instead of Full DVD, edition. Thus, this is suitable for everyone especially beginner who wants to run Debian in dualboot mode alongside Microsoft Windows in a computer. You will get a working PC or laptop with Debian 12 Desktop as a result. Now let's start it.

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  • A 64-bit computer or laptop.
  • An empty >= 8GB usb flash disk drive as bootable.
  • An empty >= 32GB usb flash disk drive, or,
  • An empty >= 32GB hard disk drive (either one should be formatted as GPT),
  • A RAM size of >= 2GB.
  • Patience, as the installation requires time, effort and electricity.

If you have no idea about these requirements, contact a nearby person with good OS installation knowledge & experience to help you with this installation.

Download Debian 12 Live GNOME

We've got you a collection of full download links of Debian 12 below. To practice this tutorial, you should grab Debian Live GNOME Edition. Just click this red button and get it.

Make Debian Bootable

Use Disk Utility (Ubuntu) or Unetbootin (Windows and MacOS) program to write Debian into a USB flash drive as bootable medium. This is required to install Debian into your computer. Click this button to learn about it. 

Boot The Installer

1. Plug your Debian bootable USB in.

2. Power on the computer.

3. Debian 12 displayed on screen like picture below.

4. If not, reboot and immediately enter BIOS.

5. Setup the BIOS so the computer boots first to USB.

6. Press F10 (Save) and reboot from the BIOS.

7. Debian 12 bootloader will show and here select Live option. 


8. Debian 12 GNOME desktop live session is ready. 


Starting here, you will begin the actual installation.

Step 1. Launch Installer & Select Language
Hit top-left corner of your screen and run Install Debian to the bottom. This will start the Debian GNU/Linux Installer like below. First page should be Welcome and here select language American English then click Next.

Step 2. Select Timezone

On Location page, select your Region and your City to determine system's timezone. This will adjust your calendar, time, currency and numbering format which are applied where you are living in. Then, click Next.

3. Select Keyboard Layout On third page, select English (US) as your keyboard layout.


4. Select Manual Partitioning


On fourth page, first select the target disk -> second select Manual partitioning option -> third click Next.  Our example here is Cruzer Blade 32GB (/dev/sdc) as target disk because we install Debian into a USB flash drive. Please notice your choices of disk target you can choose here: 

  • Hard disk 
  • Solid state drive
  • USB flash drive


4.1. Create EFI 

In the target disk:

Select free space -> click Add Partition -> fill Size: 300MB -> fill File System: fat32 -> fill Mount Point: /boot/efi -> tick Flags: boot -> OK -> you created an EFI SYSTEM PARTITION.

4.2. Create SWAP 

Still in the target disk: 

Select free space -> click Add Partition -> fill size: 1000MB or 1GB -> fill File System: swap -> leave Mount point empty -> tick Flags: swap -> click OK -> you created a SWAP partition.

4.3. Create Root partition

Lastly in the target disk: 

Select free space -> click Add Partition -> leave Size: as is -> choose File System: ext2 for installation into USB flash drive or ext4 for hard disk drive -> fill Mount point: slash character ( / ) -> tick Flags: root -> click OK.

5. Create username & password

On fifth page, please fill in your own username and password for your Debian system -> click OK.

6. Check Through Summary

On sixth page, you will need to read the summary of the whole disk partitioning you have planned beforehand. Please check it out carefully before proceeding. If everything is correct, click Install.

7. Wait for the process
Debian 12 Live GNOME requires more or less 30 minutes to finish the installation process. While waiting, you can sip a cup of coffee. We did a Javanese one.

8. Finish & Restart

Finally, the installer will notify you "All done." and ask you to restart -> restart -> remove the installation medium USB -> Debian 12 is ready to use.

Final Result If everything goes right, you will have your computer now empowered by Debian 12 GNOME Desktop. You are ready to work with it. Congratulations!


This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

Download Debian 12 LTS "Bookworm" Full Editions with Mirrors, Torrents and Checksums

Monday 12th of June 2023 05:26:00 PM

Debian 12 Bookworm operating system finally released on Saturday, 10 June 2023. This is a Long Term Support release with five years of support until 2028 and has been developed for one year since the previous release. It includes full and complete set of tens of thousands of software packages. Bookworm is available for almost all types of computer available in the world and we can download it for desktop and laptop for both 64-bit and 32-bit as detailed below plus further instructions. Let's download Debian!

Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates. About Debian 12

Debian GNU/Linux version 12 is the twelfth stable release of the universal operating system Debian as a successor to version 11 "Bullseye". It is a computer operating system that is the basic software which the purpose is the same as Microsoft Windows, MacOS, and Android to each respective devices. Its official website is and official download page is Getting Debian. It is available in almost all computer architectures exist in the world namely PC 64-bit, PC 32-bit, ARM32, ARM64, MIPS, PPC, and S390X. In the real world, these architecture supports mean Debian can run on all kinds of computer from Raspberry Pi, smartphone, PC and laptop, to server, mainframe and even supercomputer. However, in this article, only PC 64-bit and 32-bit versions covered.

Debian 12 DVD Full

To download, click one link below and Save.

For 64-bit computers:

For 32-bit computers:

Debian 12 Live Desktop Flavors

To download, click one link and Save.

For 64 bit computers:

For 32 bit computers:

Not available anymore. Our advice: you can still use Debian 12 by using DVD i386 above.


Downloading Debian 12 via torrent is very recommended as it is faster and more reliable to the users and also in many ways helping the community. To download a torrent, follow the instructions on the next section.

Torrents for Debian Full DVD:




Torrents for Debian Live 64-bit:









Torrents for Debian Live 32-bit:

Not available anymore. Our advice: you can still use Debian 12 DVD i386 above.


You should make sure (verify that) every file you downloaded from the above matched with the official checksums by SHA256SUM below. If the file's checksum matched with the original checksum, then the file is valid and safe to use -- otherwise the file is corrupted and you might need to redownload it. Follow this guide to do verification.

85042209e89908d5b59a968ff1be3c54415fa23015bf015562bad8d22452fa80  debian-12.0.0-amd64-DVD-1.iso
31338ad5ba1fa6ecda9024aa3f0993ddd9b73e38e940fb2704be3ab05958b9a5  debian-12.0.0-i386-DVD-1.iso
f43f8d2a1754dd2a2cfa95e2ae92f73e0497199f7bc44c3af35842a231f885e2  debian-live-12.0.0-amd64-cinnamon.iso
03b427707f5bc96e354721bc1108f0f91f8b0d2e89d15823724244fb7cc20bf1  debian-live-12.0.0-amd64-gnome.iso
df0dcba79af17b548fd575b263e8eedf47a52cde61a8d3435e1acd81a29d4790  debian-live-12.0.0-amd64-kde.iso
fbee060e38704f8e89eefac42ecfda672300a52c08e5b92370923b14ca54b716  debian-live-12.0.0-amd64-lxde.iso
8b11ae54860f0f495d18b36b9baa616e90a77609d69cfde712b34972df1bfdad  debian-live-12.0.0-amd64-lxqt.iso
e43edc69a309a53ee2d9ca0257ea1fa9c42d096c8af2a914510daa1c70e2a35a  debian-live-12.0.0-amd64-mate.iso
fa3960f6f692fc60a43eec4362d60f754b4a246ab64aa662270dd879a946de84  debian-live-12.0.0-amd64-standard.iso
1519dc1461910bcb5a91709d115309d5bf4c2225920e227e56cf28b29552371e  debian-live-12.0.0-amd64-xfce.iso 

How To Torrent

To download Debian 12 via BitTorrent way (an alternative method to download files) you need program like Transmission, KTorrent or uTorrent then do these:

1) Download a torrent file from the above list.
2) You got a small sized file with .iso.torrent extension to its name.
3) Double click the file.
4) Your torrent program will open.
5) Start downloading the actual file of Debian 12 e.g. by 4GB size.

How To Verify Downloaded File

Your downloaded file of Debian 12 should have exactly the same corresponding SHA256SUM value compared to the collection of checksums above. Read this guide to verify.

How To Make Debian Bootable USB

Once downloaded, you can make bootable a USB flash drive to install Debian 12 to your computer and you can carry it with you to install Debian everywhere. Read this guide to make it.


In the future, the download links will change, older ones will no longer be available anymore and you might want to read these references to get Debian 12.

- Announcement

- Release Notes (64-bit edition)

- Download Page (All)

- Download Page (DVD)

- Download Page (Live)

- Download Page (Torrents)

- Mirrors


This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

LibreOffice Calc Basics IX: MIN and MAX

Wednesday 7th of June 2023 04:58:00 PM

This is the ninth part of Calc Basics and here we will learn about the functions MIN and MAX to seek for minimum and maximum value. We still use the same exercise document following Part VIII from the series of this tutorial and you can download it below too. Now let's start the exercise.

Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates.


Download Sample

Grab the document file here [ODS 30KB] for your exercise.


Write (or copy) this data table into two sheets namely MIN and MAX. Please note that the table spans across B2 to H23. And this dataset is still the same as Part VIII. Save the document as 09-min-max.ods.


Suppose we want to find lowest scores in MIN sheet.

1. Put cursor in I3

2. Do the formula =MIN(E3:H3)

3. Repeat it for the rest of column from ABI to CLAUDIA

4. Name the column Lowest Score

5. Similarly do it horizontally at the bottom from E24 to H24

6. As a result, you will see lowest score (minimum value) of students is evaluated  individually in horizontal (right) and collectively in vertical (bottom).

For example, here you can evaluate lowest score individually, Silvie got 30 while Ahmad got 50 at worst, while collectively (as a whole) this class got 30 in Math and 45 in English.


On the other hand, suppose we want to find highest scores in MAX worksheet.

1. Put cursor in I3

2. Do the formula =MAX(E3:H3)

3. Repeat it for the rest of I3 column in MAX sheet

4. Name the column Highest Score

5. Similarly do it horizontally from E24 to H24

6. As a result, you will see highest score (maximum value) of students is evaluated  individually in horizontal (right) and collectively in vertical (bottom).

For example, here you can evaluate highest score individually, Abi got 80 while Claudia got 90 at best, while collectively (as a whole) this class got 100 in Math and 94 in English.

Happy exercising! 


This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

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