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today's howtos

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  • How Do I Change My Desktop Background in Ubuntu? – Linux Hint

    The first step after having installed Ubuntu is to personalize it according to your preferences, to give it a “homier feel”. One way to get started with customizing your new Linux setup is to change the desktop background. In this guide, we will show you different ways you can do just that.

  • How Do I Remove Files from Trash on Ubuntu? – Linux Hint

    You can delete unnecessary files and folders by selecting them and pressing the “Delete” button on your keyboard. These deleted files then go to Trash, a system directory designated for deleted files. Deleted files stay in “Trash” until you decide to empty the directory or restore the files. We will be discussing the first option in this guide – how you can remove files from Trash?

    Method 1: Using Ubuntu’s File Manager

    Let us start off with a simple way to clear the trash folder. This and the next method are going to be implemented using the user interface, so people who do not feel comfortable using the terminal often should go this one.

    First, open Ubuntu’s file manager through the sidebar. On the left side, you will see a list of accessible directories. Click on the one that says “Trash”.

  • How To Install HandBrake on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - idroot

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to install HandBrake on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. For those of you who didn’t know, Handbrake is a video transcoder for converting video from one format to another format and available for Linux,macOS X, and windows. The open-source, multi-threaded HandBrake can be effectively used for the conversion of DVD-Videos into other formats. This program (HandBrake) supports major video formats like MP4, MKV, H.264, MPEG-4, or other formats.

    This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you through the step-by-step installation of the HandBrake open-source video converter on Ubuntu 20.04 (Focal Fossa). You can follow the same instructions for Ubuntu 18.04, 16.04, and any other Debian-based distribution like Linux Mint.

  • How to Access Another Computer on the Same Network with Linux – Linux Hint

    There are many reasons for accessing another computer on the home/office network from your laptop/desktop. For example,

    1. Using Graphical Software Remotely: There are many software that needs high-spec computers to run (i.e., Autodesk Maya, AutoCAD, Blender). Your laptop/desktop may not have the required specs to run it. At times, a particular software may run on a specific operating system that you don’t want to install on your laptop/desktop just for that one piece of software. In these cases, you can install the required graphical software on other computers and access them remotely from your laptop/desktop and use the required graphical software from your laptop/desktop.

    2. Solving Problems Remotely: If you’re the tech guy of your office, at times, you may need to solve problems on the computers of your colleagues or show them how to do something. You can remotely connect to your colleague’s computer and solve his/her problem. This will save you a lot of your time that you would otherwise spend on walking or in the lift or stairs to go to your colleague’s room.

    3. Remote Graphical/Command-Line Administration: You may be a system administrator of a company. The company may have a lot of computers that you need to administer. Going from desk to desk or room to room to administer every single computer of your company will be many hassles for you. Instead, you can sit and relax on your desk and remotely connect to the computers you need to administer from your laptop/desktop. This will save you a lot of time and extra work.

    4. Accessing Virtual Machines: You may want to run virtual machines on your server using Type-I hypervisors like Proxmox VE, VMware vSphere, KVM, etc. In that case, to use the virtual machines, you need to remotely connect to the virtual machines from your laptop/computer as these virtual machines won’t have any physical display, keyboard, or mouse.

    This article will show you different methods of accessing other computers and virtual machines on the same network with Linux. So, let’s get started.

  • How to install Xubuntu 21.04

    In this video, I am going to show how to install Xubuntu 21.04.

  • How to Add a Git Commit Message? – Linux Hint

    Documentation is very useful for any type of programming. It helps us understand the code easily. The coder may forget the function of the code written by himself/herself after a long time. But if the code is well documented, then the coder or anyone can easily understand the function of the code anytime from the documentation. The information about the particular file and folder of GitHub can be set like the documentation using Git commit message. When a git repository is published in GitHub, a default commit message is added with each file and folder of which function of the particular file or folder is not defined clearly. The git user can add the custom commit message for each file or folder that defines the purpose of that file or folder clearly. The way to add the git commit message has been explained in this tutorial.

  • Hidden gem - Show failures only in external results

    Certain tests like ltp perform a series of tests within a test run and show the results as “External results”. This is useful, because it allows to show more details about which substeps are being perform within a test. It allows to show a passing or failing state of those substeps directly in the WebUI. For instance, in the Tumbleweed JeOS ltp-syscalls test case, it shows all running syscalls tests and you are able to identify the failaing syscalls, instead of just the whole ltp-syscalls test failing.

    In a nutshell: openQA will show certain substeps as individual test cases in the WebUI with their corresponding passed/failed state.

  • How to Check Dependencies of a Package in Ubuntu 20.04

    In the Ubuntu system, installing the packages using the command-line is popular among beginners as it seems quite easy. There are various ways to get the dependencies of a package in Ubuntu 20.04. But we need to know about the “package dependencies” for the folks who are unaware of it.

    While installing software packages in the Linux operating system, some packages depend on other packages to function correctly. Sometimes they are already installed on the system, but, in other cases, they installed with the package automatically. These dependent packages are termed package dependencies.

    There are multiple approaches to get dependencies details, such as using apt package manager, dpkg command, or installing a tool.

    Let’s begin with the APT package management system to get the dependencies of a package.

  • How to Check Fail2banLogs? – Linux Hint

    In today’s post, we are going to explain how to check Fail2ban logs. We will also explain what are the log levels and log targets and how we can change them.


    What is a Log File?

    Log files are automatically generated files by an application or OS that have a record of events. These files keep track of all events linked with the system or application which generated them. The purpose of log files is to maintain a record of what happened behind the scene so that if something occurs, we can see a detailed list of events that have happened before the problem. It is the first thing administrators check when they encounter any issue. Most log file ends with .log or .txt extension.

  • How to Create a Simple Shell Script in Linux – Linux Hint

    In Unix System, Shell provides an environment to connect the Linux user and operating system. It helps to get input from the user through commands, operate the function based on input and return the output on the terminal.

    Shell scripts are the list of simple commands to perform operations. You can also create your own commands to perform functions in a system.

    How to Create a Simple Shell Script in Linux:

    Shell scripting can be added in a Linux system using multiple text editors. This guide will create a shell script with Linux by default text editor and the “Vim” text editor tool.

  • Display Linux Kernel Module Information With Modinfo Command - OSTechNix

    This brief guide explains what is Linux Kernel module, how to list the currently loaded Kernel modules using lsmod, and how to display Linux Kernel module information with modinfo command in Linux.


    Some examples of Kernel modules are firmware and device drivers, which allows the Linux Kernel to access and control hardware connected to the system. Generally, the Kernel modules are used to add support for new hardware (as device drivers), and/or filesystems, or for adding system calls.

    Without Kernel modules, we have to rebuild and reboot the kernel every time we want a new functionality. We also need to build bigger monolithic kernels and add new functionality directly into the kernel image without Kernel modules. With the help of a Kernel modules, we can simply avoid these problems.

  • Ethernet Switch vs. Hub vs. Splitter: What's the Difference? - Make Tech Easier

    You’re short on Ethernet ports and want to transform one Ethernet cable into two. The first thing that springs to mind is probably Ethernet splitting. You have a few options: hub, splitter, or switch. Each solution has something different to offer, so before purchasing any gadget, it’s important to identify which one has the most to offer you. Here we show you the differences between an Ethernet switch vs. hub vs. splitter so you can make the right choice.


    A major downside of an Ethernet splitter is that it reduces the number of utilized wires in a Cat 5e Ethernet cable and reduces the data throughput from 1000Mbps to 100Mbps, which is barely on par with most home Internet connections. This enables you to utilize one cable for two Ethernet connections.

    While Ethernet splitters are cheap and appear to offer a good solution, they do result in a slower speed for network traffic. This is likely to affect the performance of your Ethernet-connected devices. Ethernet splitters are also limited to a maximum of two devices per cable.

    For some limited situations, Ethernet splitters are a good option. However, it’s almost always better to opt for an Ethernet switch or hub.

  • How to Delete a Git Branch Locally?

    One of the important features of GitHub is the branch that contains the copy of the project from a particular point. It helps manage the project work properly. When all project works are done and approved, then it is necessary to combine the works from the different branches to the main branch. After merging the project work, it is required to delete the unnecessary branches. The GitHub server contains the main files and folders for the user. The owner of the GitHub account can access the file and folders of the different repositories at any time and if any file is changed locally, then the owner can publish the updated content from the local system to the main server. The branches of the main server are called remote branches and the branches of the local system are called local branches. GitHub Desktop has used it in this tutorial to create, access, and update the repositories of the local drive and GitHub server. The branch of the repository can be deleted by executing commands in the terminal or by using the GitHub Desktop. These two ways of deleting any local git branch have been shown in this tutorial.

  • How to Download and Install TeamViewer on Linux

    Need to remotely access another computer or accept remote access to your Linux PC? Here's how to use TeamViewer on Linux.

    TeamViewer is no doubt one of the most popular remote computing clients available on the internet. Like Windows and macOS, Linux users can also install TeamViewer on their system to remotely access other devices and computers.

    In this article, we will discuss how you can download and install TeamViewer, a remote control and access software, on your Linux machine.

  • How to Enable Dark Mode on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS – Linux Hint

    There are many remarkable advantages of enabling the dark mode on the system.

    By default, the system offers the Standard mode (light/white mode), but there are two more modes: light and dark.

    Most of the PC users preferred to select the dark mode, as working continuously in front of a sharp white background for a longer period makes the eyes tired and burdened.

    Using the dark mode helps to clear visibility for the users having low vision. It also saves the PC energy and adjusts the screen light according to the environmental light condition.

    And the interesting thing is that it looks amazing while using the system with the dark mode. As everything looks catchy, especially all icons/folders can be differentiated easily.

  • How to Find and Delete Broken Symlinks on Linux – Linux Hint

    Symlink or a.k.a symbolic link is a file containing the address of some file or directory and points towards that directory or file. But, when you move or delete the original file, then the symlink gets broken, and it does not work anymore. Although the broken symlinks do not work, they consume the space on your system, and over some time, you realize that you need to get rid of them and free up some storage space.

    This post will provide you with a complete and in-detail guide on finding and deleting a broken Symlink on the Ubuntu 20.04 LTS system. So, let’s start with learning how to verify a symbolic link file.

  • How to Install Scribus on Ubuntu – Linux Hint

    Scribus is an open-source, multi-platform desktop publication application. It is used for designing and publishing brochures, newspapers, magazines, posters, books, and even newsletters.

    If you are familiar with the Adobe InDesign app, then Scribus is a free alternative to it. Scribus has all the features that a premium application offers, such as layout designing, typesetting, vector drawing, and image manipulation. The projects created in Scribus can be published in digital and print formats.

  • How to Manage Startup Programs on Ubuntu Linux – Linux Hint

    Startup programs are the programs or applications that get executed automatically when an Operating system boots up. The programs can be any regular program like Skype, Discord, Torrent Client, etc. They help save time and enhance the usability experience but at the same time, running too many programs leads to the Operating system’s slow and poor performance because the whole memory gets busy in running all those programs.

    This post’s purpose is to get you aware of those programs and help you in learning how to manage startup Programs on Ubuntu 20.04. We will learn all about adding and removing the applications from the startup list in the Ubuntu 20.04 system. So, let’s jump in and start learning.

  • How to Merge Two Branches in Git – Linux Hint

    Any git repository contains one or more branches. The git user creates different branches for storing files and folders based on the different topics. It helps the user to manage the code easily. In the development process, sometimes it requires combining one branch with the other branch of the repository for the project purpose. `git merge` command is used for this task. This command finds out the common base commit command by examining the two commit pointers of the merging branches and generates a new merge to combine the changes after running the command. Both local and remote repositories are required to be updated before running the merge command. The way of merging two branches locally has shown in this tutorial.

  • How to Search in Vim Editor – Linux Hint

    We have heard several times the “Vim” editor tool in Linux distributions. It the most commonly used multiplatform tool that comes up with several modes. Each of its modes has different editing functionality; some are used to perform commands (code editor), and some for the text editor.

    It is simple to work with the “Vim” editor but giving more attention to this tool help to learn to explore more.

    This guide will focus on the search feature of the “Vim” editor, which is quite handy. We need to understand this because searching for the specific word/string from large file data is not easy.

    Let’s start with the “Vim” editor, but keep in mind your mode should be in the command mode.

  • How to convert video to GIF in Linux – Linux Hint

    While using social media, we always see animated GIFs everywhere. If adding a picture on blogs would tell you 100 words about the story, GIF would come up with 1000 words.

    Animated GIFs are used to make the blogs interesting and a great alternative for demo purposes short videos. It is a quick way to display anything that could not be expressed in images, or you don’t need to insert long videos all the time.

    GIFs are also used in software documentation and media and make everything a part of the fun.

  • How to install the Delft icon theme in Linux

    The Delft icon theme is a fork of the famous Faenza icon theme. It’s incredibly stylish and fits right at home on any Linux desktop. If you’d like to try out the Delft icon theme on your system, follow along with the instructions in this guide!

  • How to print command output in Ansible? – Linux Hint

    Ordinarily, when you run an Ansible playbook, you get execution details printed on the terminal. These include the name of the play and task and a play recap indicating if the playbook has made any changes on the managed host or remote system

    But, suppose you want to print the command output of the command being executed on the remote target. How do you go about this? In this tutorial, you will learn how to print the command output in Ansible.

  • How to run a shell script as a different user – Linux Hint

    Sometimes you might find yourself required to run a shell script as a different user other than the active user on the shell. This is quite easy and can be done in a few simple steps So how do you go about this? Let’s find out.


    Before getting started, ensure that you have access to the shell of a Linux system; any Linux distribution will do just fine. In this guide, we are running Ubuntu 18.04.

    Equally crucial is to make sure that you have a shell script with execute permissions. We have a simple shell script called that requests a user’s name and prints it out to the terminal.

  • Kali Linux 2021.1 - Fresh Installation Guide

    Kali Linux is arguably one of the best out-of-the-box Linux distributions available for security testing. While many of the tools in Kali can be installed in most Linux distributions, the Offensive Security team developing Kali has put countless hours into perfecting their ready-to-boot security distribution.

    Kali Linux is a secure Debian-based Linux distribution that comes pre-loaded with hundreds of well-known security tools and has gained quite a name for itself.

    Kali even has an industry-respected certification available called “Pentesting with Kali”. The certification is a rigorous 24-hour challenge in which applicants must successfully compromise a number of computers with another 24 hours to write up a professional penetration test report that is sent to and graded by the personnel at Offensive Security. Successfully passing this exam will allow the test taker to obtain the OSCP credential.

  • Compress a PDF with ghostscript

    This days I had to send a multiple page PDF with a bunch of pictures on it, but requirements said that it needed to be smaller than 5Mb. With Ghostscript I was able to transform a 10.9MB file into a 1.2Mb without loosing quality, since it was mandatory that the small letters contained on the PDF were completely readable.

  • What is the Meaning of – Linux Hint

    Internet Protocol or IP uses a 32-bit IPv4 or 128-bit IPv6 address for identifying a device on a network. This is analogous to our physical home address which is used for delivering our mails and online shopping items, for reaching to us, etc. Our physical home address is a mix of numbers and words, but in the case of computers, they only understand numeric addresses in a specific format. Even if we type an address like “”, computers will resolve it into a numerical format using the DNS mechanism.

  • VRChat on Linux PC - Install & Play online virtual reality game

    Online VRChat is a popular virtual parallel world for the player in which he can interact with others using a 3D avatar. The game is available to play using Steam, Quest, Rift, and Viveport. In VRChat, the users can create their own worlds and chat rooms to meet friends and the community. The best part is the developers have given the community almost complete freedom. However, leaving the moderation largely to the community, sometimes have negative consequences such as numerous trolls cavort in the chat rooms and offensive memes kind of things emerge.

    Nevertheless, to counter this VRchat developers have already introduced a panic button. Using which the player can replace all participants’ avatars that are not in the friend list with gray schemes and also mute the corresponding players.

  • Linux for Starters: Your Guide to Linux - Install Ubuntu from your USB stick - Part 4 - LinuxLinks

    This is a series that offers a gentle introduction to Linux for newcomers.

    In this article we show you how to install Ubuntu 21.04 on your hard disk. It’s a slick process.

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today's howtos

  • How to install go1.19beta on Ubuntu 22.04 – NextGenTips

    In this tutorial, we are going to explore how to install go on Ubuntu 22.04 Golang is an open-source programming language that is easy to learn and use. It is built-in concurrency and has a robust standard library. It is reliable, builds fast, and efficient software that scales fast. Its concurrency mechanisms make it easy to write programs that get the most out of multicore and networked machines, while its novel-type systems enable flexible and modular program constructions. Go compiles quickly to machine code and has the convenience of garbage collection and the power of run-time reflection. In this guide, we are going to learn how to install golang 1.19beta on Ubuntu 22.04. Go 1.19beta1 is not yet released. There is so much work in progress with all the documentation.

  • molecule test: failed to connect to bus in systemd container - openQA bites

    Ansible Molecule is a project to help you test your ansible roles. I’m using molecule for automatically testing the ansible roles of geekoops.

  • How To Install MongoDB on AlmaLinux 9 - idroot

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to install MongoDB on AlmaLinux 9. For those of you who didn’t know, MongoDB is a high-performance, highly scalable document-oriented NoSQL database. Unlike in SQL databases where data is stored in rows and columns inside tables, in MongoDB, data is structured in JSON-like format inside records which are referred to as documents. The open-source attribute of MongoDB as a database software makes it an ideal candidate for almost any database-related project. This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you the step-by-step installation of the MongoDB NoSQL database on AlmaLinux 9. You can follow the same instructions for CentOS and Rocky Linux.

  • An introduction (and how-to) to Plugin Loader for the Steam Deck. - Invidious
  • Self-host a Ghost Blog With Traefik

    Ghost is a very popular open-source content management system. Started as an alternative to WordPress and it went on to become an alternative to Substack by focusing on membership and newsletter. The creators of Ghost offer managed Pro hosting but it may not fit everyone's budget. Alternatively, you can self-host it on your own cloud servers. On Linux handbook, we already have a guide on deploying Ghost with Docker in a reverse proxy setup. Instead of Ngnix reverse proxy, you can also use another software called Traefik with Docker. It is a popular open-source cloud-native application proxy, API Gateway, Edge-router, and more. I use Traefik to secure my websites using an SSL certificate obtained from Let's Encrypt. Once deployed, Traefik can automatically manage your certificates and their renewals. In this tutorial, I'll share the necessary steps for deploying a Ghost blog with Docker and Traefik.