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today's howtos

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  • Harish Pillay 9v1hp: Tech tip: using mutt to access

    I needed to set up access to a paid-for email provider, via mutt. Yes, they do have a web-based access, but real email users use mutt (and I’ve been using it since about 1998).

    At least they are providing standard IMAP services which is the Right Thing and also support GPG signing and encryption built-in. I have not checked other providers, but for an email service to offer up standard GPG is a Big Win in my books.

  • How to Change Kernel Version in Manjaro – Linux Hint

    A kernel is a core component of any Operating system. It works as an interface between the machine hardware and the software applications that allocate hardware resources to system processes. Since each element of a Linux OS is built around it, the increasing software and hardware sophistication requires full kernel utilization. Hence, Linux Kernels are always under development with regular updates and version releases. Similarly, updating kernels is an ideal way to ensure that the devices and software are functioning at their best.

    Manjaro offers various ways to identify, upgrade, downgrade or add new/old kernels. Manjaro provides a great graphical user interface known as Manjaro System Manager for kernel management. Moreover, Manjaro package manager Pacman also provides kernel version management.

    However, the best feature that distinguishes Manjaro Linux is its hardware detection management tool mhwd-kernel command that allows easy management and installation of multiple kernels.

    In this article, we demonstrate the use of the Manjaro command-line terminal and GUI to update, add and remove the Manjaro kernel versions.

  • Test if a port on a remote system is reachable – Linux Hint

    Monitoring for an open port is a key security measure for securing a remote server. Hackers usually target compromised servers by analysing critical open ports. If a hacker manages to find such a port, he/she can use it to send illegitimate traffic or use it for gaining unauthorized access on remote servers.

    Many important applications like database servers, web servers, file transfer services, etc., use dedicated ports. To harden the security of system/servers, system administrators usually secure these ports by either denying access to them by unknown users/services or changing the default port number to some other value.

    In computer networks, knowledge of port management is a very vital task for administering server security. This guide will study various methods of analysing a port on a Linux Ubuntu 20.04 system.

  • What is a .pem file, and how to use it? – Linux Hint

    The .pem file format is mostly used to store cryptographic keys. This file can be used for different purposes. The .pem file defines the structure and encoding file type that is used to store the data. The pem file contains the standard dictated format to start and end a file.

    We will give you an overview in this article about the .pem file and how to use it.

  • How to Change MySQL Root Password in Ubuntu 20.04 – Linux Hint

    Passwords are hard to remember, so if you have forgotten the MySQL root password, luckily, there is a way to change it. This post has been written for you, and by the end of this post, you will have successfully changed the password of MySQL.

    Before getting straight to the solution, it is assumed that you are using the latest version of the MySQL database on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS system. This post will provide a step-by-step guide on how to change MySQL root password in Ubuntu 20.04. So, without wasting any time, let’s start.

  • How to Edit Hosts File on Linux? – Linux Hint

    A Hosts file is supported in Linux, Windows, and Mac; they are plain-text files that work to map hostnames to various IP addresses. It is great to edit the Hosts file when you run the test on the specific network. You can also use the mapping of an IP address to skip the process in which the web browser uses the DNS (Domain Name Server) lookup for translating a domain name to a particular IP address.

    When a user types a website’s domain name, the domain name needs to translate into a specific IP address. A Hosts file has a top priority over DNS since an operating system checks its Hosts file for a domain and in case there is no entry for that domain. It starts to query the configured DNS servers for resolving the particular domain name. It was the little information about the Hosts file, and we will consider every single aspect on how to edit Hosts files on Linux easily.

  • How can I see all Active IP Addresses on my Network? – Linux Hint

    Network administrators need to scan for connected devices on the network as a security measure. With the rise of the Internet of Things(IoT), more devices are being connected to the internet. This raises the concern of organizations to protect their network and online resources from any potential security breaches. Any negligence, in this case, can lead to the loss of potential assets and the reputation of the organization. This is true as even big players like Github, FireEye, Capitol One, etc., have become the victims of cyberattacks in recent times.

    Maintaining a stable and secure network by preventing unauthorized access and keeping an eye on the activity of legitimate users is very important. Organizations spend millions of dollars on securing themselves from any threat exposure.

    In case of any awful event, knowing who is connected to the network is the first and most fundamental step towards the threat analysis. This helps the administrators to narrow the investigation process, and it also makes trouble tracking easier.

  • How To Install Telnet on CentOS 8 - idroot

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to install the Telnet on CentOS 8. For those of you who didn’t know, Telnet is the application layer protocol that provides bidirectional interactive text-based communication. It works in Server / Client mode where the Telnet Server application is installed in the main computer and all other computers connect with it using the Telnet client application. By default, telnet won’t be installed in your System.

    This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you through the step-by-step installation of the Telnet on a CentOS 8.

  • How Do I Record Audio on Ubuntu? – Linux Hint

    It is essential to have a voice or audio recording feature because it can help you do a voice-over on a video or any other tasks. However, there is always a question about recording audio on Ubuntu. There are some tools available to do it easily, but it is impossible to record audio by an inbuilt system. If you also find something to record voices in your Ubuntu machine easily, then read the article below. We have included all of the information and answers on how to record audio on Ubuntu.

  • [Fixed] Browser Keeps Detecting Network Change in Linux

    For the past several days, I faced a strange issue in my system running Ubuntu Linux. I use Firefox and Brave browsers. Everything was normal in Firefox but Brave keeps on detecting a network change on almost every refresh.

    This went on to the extent that it became impossible to use the browser. I could not use Feedly to browse feeds from my favorite websites, every search result ends in multiple refresh, websites needed to be refreshed multiple times as well.

    As an alternative, I tried installing Chrome on Ubuntu. The problem remained the same. I installed Microsoft Edge on Linux and yet, the problem persisted there as well. Basically, any Chromium-based browser keep encountering the ERR_NETWORK_CHANGED error.

    Luckily, I found a way to fix the issue. I am going to share the steps with you so that it helps you if you are also facing the same problem.

  • How to Find the Unused IP Addresses on my Network in Linux? – Linux Hint

    We all know that multiple devices can be connected with each other over a network. These devices have dedicated IP addresses. However, you want to assign an IP address to a device at times, and you want to look for a valid and unused IP address on the network. In today’s article, we will discuss some methods of finding the unused IP addresses on the network in Linux Mint 20.

  • How to Fix Broken Ubuntu 20.04 without Reinstalling It – Linux Hint

    We often came across some faulty errors and faced some serious system issues like a broken Operating system. We are only left with a black screen, and it seems like the ultimate fix will be to reinstall the Operating system. That is not the only solution; we can fix a broken Operating system without reinstalling it using some different techniques that we are going to perform in this article. Reinstalling a whole Operating system is not a good option because it may lead to data loss of all important files and folders.

  • Use freenode with [matrix] with registration and verification

    Matrix (also written [matrix]) is an open source project and a communication protocol. The protocol standard is open and it is free to use or implement. Matrix is being recognized as a modern successor to the older Internet Relay Chat (IRC) protocol. Mozilla, KDE, FOSDEM and GNOME are among several large projects that have started using chat clients and servers that operate over the Matrix protocol. Members of the Fedora project have discussed whether or not the community should switch to using the Matrix protocol.

  • How to Install Fedora 34 Server with Screenshots

    Fedora 34 is released for desktop, server & cloud environments, and the Internet of Things, and in this tutorial, we shall go through the various steps on how to install the Fedora 34 server with screenshots.

    There are some crucial improvements in the server edition, before we proceed to the installation steps, we shall look at some of the new features and improvements.

  • How to Install Virt Viewer on Linux? – Linux Hint

    Virt Viewer is used in order to access KVM virtual machines using the SPICE remote desktop protocol. It is an alternative to VMware Remote Console (VMRC) for KVM virtualization solutions like Proxmox. Virt Viewer has many advanced features like VMware Remote Console (VMRC).

  • How to Measure and Show Progress of the “dd” command in Linux? – Linux Hint

    The “dd” command in Linux is used to convert and copy files from one place to another. However, by default, this command is not programmed to show the progress of the ongoing operation. If you are copying large files from one place to another, this can be quite troublesome for you because you want to monitor progress continuously. For that, you need to tweak the “dd” command a little so that it is capable of measuring and showing the progress. Today, we will learn how we can achieve this goal using a Linux Mint 20 system.

  • How to Open Firewall for NFS Share in Linux – Linux Hint

    NFS is a distributed file system protocol that lets users mount remote files and directories on their systems. It works in a client-server environment where the server shares part of its file system and clients access the shared files and directories. It lets the client view and store their files on a remote system as if they were on their system.

    This guide will describe how to open a firewall for NFS share in Linux OS. Remember, you will need sudo privilege to allow/block any connection in the Linux firewall.

  • How to Open bz2 File? – Linux Hint

    As a little introduction, the bz2 File is the compressed version of a normal file that helps a user decrease its size. So, commands like “Tar”, which is used to create or extract the tar archives, also support a huge range of comparison programs like lzop, xz gzip, bzip2, lzip, lzma, etc. Bzip2 is one of the best algorithms to compress tar files, and by convention, a tar archive’s name compressed with the bzip2 ends with .tar.bz2 or .tbz2. We will cover brief information on ways to open bz2 file Linux easily.

  • How to Secure WordPress Installation with Bedrock - Google Cloud

    How to Secure WordPress Installation with Bedrock on Google Cloud Platform. Bedrock is a WordPress boilerplate with a different improved directory structure and easier configuration.

    It is more secure by isolating the web root and limit access to non-web files and more secure passwords using wp-password-becrypt which replaces the MD5 hashing with modern bcrypt method.

    In this guide you are going to learn how to install and configure WordPress using Bedrock. This setup is tested on Google Cloud Platform.

  • How to Transfer Books and Other Files to Kindle E-Reader Using Linux – Linux Hint

    This article will explain how to transfer various files to your Kindle ebook reader connected to a Linux system through a USB connection. The first few sections of the article will cover the file transfer process without using any third party software. The last section will cover ebook transfer and conversion using the “Calibre” ebook management software suite. Note that all the instructions explained below will work on all major desktop operating systems including Linux, Windows and macOS. These instructions will work on Android devices as well, except for the instructions in “Calibre” sections.

  • How to disable automatic Snap update - PragmaticLinux

    Snap packages make it possible to conveniently install software applications on your Linux system. Perfect when your Linux distribution’s package manager does not offer a specific application or the right version. Application developers now only need to package their software once and publish it on the Snapcraft website. Snaps also have a disadvantage: they automatically update to a newer version in the background. This article explains how to disable this automatic Snap update feature.

  • LFCA: Learn Serverless Computing, Benefits and Pitfalls – Part 15

    Serverless technology has generated a lot of hype in the tech community evoking a lot of curiosity and receiving some backlash to a little extent. It’s a technology that began with the launch of AWS Lamba in 2014, which was soon followed by Azure Functions later in 2016.

    Google later followed suit with the release of Google Cloud functions in July 2018. So, what is serverless technology? To best answer this question, let’s take our minds back to traditional server-based computing.

    In the traditional IT model, you were in charge of basically everything. As a business owner, you would have to budget for servers and other networking equipment such as routers and switches, and racks for mourning the servers.

  • Building containers by hand: The PID namespace | Enable Sysadmin

    Continuing with the namespaces series, this article covers the PID namespace. If you want a general overview of all the namespaces, check out the first article. Previously, you created a new mnt namespace. Interestingly, as you discovered, even after creating a new mnt namespace, you still had access to the original host's process IDs (PIDs).

  • To Copy List of Files Using Bash Script – Linux Hint

    Bash (Bourne Again Shell) is the kind of shell that is for executing commands and scripts. Bash was a developed version of the sh shell. Bash Script is a file where multiple shell commands are scripted to perform a particular task. In this article, we will see how we can copy multiple files using a bash script. For this article, I am using Ubuntu 20.04 to demonstrate the example.

    Note: – $USER will print current login users’ usernames.

    If you are curious what version of bash shell is installed in the system, we can check it using the following command.

  • kex_exchange_identification Connection Closed by Remote Host – Linux Hint

    While constructing a network of different devices, you may come across multiple challenges. Getting the right piece of hardware is not the only issue but configuring it the right way and making it work well with the rest of the devices is the real art. Having said that, many of the people with the networking background might have come across this issue that their network was working absolutely as intended previously. However, as soon as they introduced a new device to the network, it started malfunctioning and generating different errors.

    In today’s article, we are going to talk about the probable causes of one such error, i.e., kex_exchange_identification connection closed by remote host.

  • Access an alternate internet with OpenNIC |

    In the words of Dan Kaminsky, the legendary DNS hacker, "the Internet's proven to be a pretty big deal for global society." For the Internet to work, computers must be able to find one another on the most complex network of all: the World Wide Web. This was the problem posed to government workers and academic IT staff a few decades ago, and it's their solutions that we use today. They weren't, however, actually seeking to build _the Internet_, they were defining specifications for _internets_ (actually for _catenets_, or "concatenated networks", but the term that eventually fell out of vogue), a generic term for _interconnected networks_.

    According to these specifications, a network uses a combination of numbers that serve as a sort of home address for each online computer and assigns a human-friendly but highly structured "hostname" (such as to each website. Because users primarily interact with the internet through website names, it can be said that the internet works only because we've all agreed to a standardized naming scheme. The Internet could work differently, should enough people decide to use a different naming scheme. A group of users could form a parallel internet, one that exists using the same physical infrastructure (the cables and satellites and other modes of transport that get data from one place to another) but uses a different means of correlating hostnames with numbered addresses.

    In fact, this already exists, and this article shows how you can access it.

  • Are RJ45 and Cat6 The Same?

    Ethernet cables are essential components of Ethernet networks. They’re not only made up of cables alone; at both ends of the cable are the RJ45 connectors. They work hand-in-hand, and it’s impossible to use one without the other. Once fused, the cables that they form become the nerves of the network, allowing data transmission between the devices. The cables are commonly named after the cable category, but they’re also referred to as RJ45 cable. Nowadays, Cat6 cables are the most common Ethernet cable due to the rise of Gigabit Ethernet. Although Cat6 and RJ45 do not refer to the same thing, there are still times that they are used interchangeably, raising confusion and sometimes even arguments as to what these two things really are. It’s simple to differentiate between the two if you’re in the networking space, but for those who are still novices or for those who are simply curious, this article will delve into these things to shed some light on your confused minds.

  • Open Badges for French Math Guide translators!

    Thanks to localisation volunteers around the world, LibreOffice’s documentation is available in many languages. Today, we want to say thanks to the French community of translators, who localised the guide for LibreOffice Math 7.0 – great work, everyone!

    Each translator gets an Open Badge from The Document Foundation, the non-profit behind LibreOffice. These are special, custom images with embedded metadata, confirming the contributions.

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today's howtos

  • How to install go1.19beta on Ubuntu 22.04 – NextGenTips

    In this tutorial, we are going to explore how to install go on Ubuntu 22.04 Golang is an open-source programming language that is easy to learn and use. It is built-in concurrency and has a robust standard library. It is reliable, builds fast, and efficient software that scales fast. Its concurrency mechanisms make it easy to write programs that get the most out of multicore and networked machines, while its novel-type systems enable flexible and modular program constructions. Go compiles quickly to machine code and has the convenience of garbage collection and the power of run-time reflection. In this guide, we are going to learn how to install golang 1.19beta on Ubuntu 22.04. Go 1.19beta1 is not yet released. There is so much work in progress with all the documentation.

  • molecule test: failed to connect to bus in systemd container - openQA bites

    Ansible Molecule is a project to help you test your ansible roles. I’m using molecule for automatically testing the ansible roles of geekoops.

  • How To Install MongoDB on AlmaLinux 9 - idroot

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to install MongoDB on AlmaLinux 9. For those of you who didn’t know, MongoDB is a high-performance, highly scalable document-oriented NoSQL database. Unlike in SQL databases where data is stored in rows and columns inside tables, in MongoDB, data is structured in JSON-like format inside records which are referred to as documents. The open-source attribute of MongoDB as a database software makes it an ideal candidate for almost any database-related project. This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you the step-by-step installation of the MongoDB NoSQL database on AlmaLinux 9. You can follow the same instructions for CentOS and Rocky Linux.

  • An introduction (and how-to) to Plugin Loader for the Steam Deck. - Invidious
  • Self-host a Ghost Blog With Traefik

    Ghost is a very popular open-source content management system. Started as an alternative to WordPress and it went on to become an alternative to Substack by focusing on membership and newsletter. The creators of Ghost offer managed Pro hosting but it may not fit everyone's budget. Alternatively, you can self-host it on your own cloud servers. On Linux handbook, we already have a guide on deploying Ghost with Docker in a reverse proxy setup. Instead of Ngnix reverse proxy, you can also use another software called Traefik with Docker. It is a popular open-source cloud-native application proxy, API Gateway, Edge-router, and more. I use Traefik to secure my websites using an SSL certificate obtained from Let's Encrypt. Once deployed, Traefik can automatically manage your certificates and their renewals. In this tutorial, I'll share the necessary steps for deploying a Ghost blog with Docker and Traefik.