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today's howtos

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  • How to use OpenSSL and the Internet PKI on Linux systems

    This article is part two of three covering encryption concepts and the Internet public key infrastructure (PKI). The first article in this series introduced symmetric and public key (asymmetric) encryption in cryptography. If you're not familiar with the basic concept of public-key encryption, you should read part one before you go ahead with this one.

    In this part, I show you the basics of Transport Layer Security and Secure Socket Layer (TLS/SSL), how the Internet PKI works, and OpenSSL, the Swiss Army knife for TLS/SSL tasks. I cover how to use OpenSSL to create key-pairs and to generate a certificate signing request (CSR) to send to your certificate authority (CA) for signing. After that, I discuss some weaknesses of the Internet PKI you should be aware of.

  • Install and review SpiderFoot network penetration testing tool

    SpiderFoot is an open source intelligence (OSINT) automation tool. It integrates with just about every data source available and utilises a range of methods for data analysis, making that data easy to navigate.

    SpiderFoot has an embedded web-server for providing a clean and intuitive web-based interface but can also be used completely via the command-line. It’s written in Python 3 and GPL-licensed.

  • NGINX HTTPS Reverse Proxy With Basic Auth – Jon's FOSS Blog

    Lets say you wanted to run a local area network controller web service that was made by a company that you didn’t completely trust, what would be your options? If you wanted proper authenticated+encrypted access to it, you could setup a trustworthy VPN service like OpenVPN and remote into the LAN or you can also setup a reverse https proxy service that handles the TLS channel + basic authentication first before forwarding on the traffic to the internal web service.

  • Linux find largest file in directory recursively using find/du - nixCraft

    I have 500GB SSD installed on my Linux server. My web server is running out of the disk space. I need to find a biggest or largest file concerning file size on the disk. How do I find largest file in a directory recursively using the find command?

    To find a big file concerning file size on disk is easy task if you know how to use the find, du and other command. The du command used to estimate file space usage on Linux system. The output of du passed on to the sort and head command using shell pipes. Let us see how to find largest file in Linux server using various commands.

  • How to Install Mosh Shell as SSH Alternative on Linux

    Mosh, which stands for Mobile Shell is a command-line application which is used for connecting to the server from a client computer, over the Internet. It can be used as SSH and contains more feature than Secure Shell.

    It is an application similar to SSH, but with additional features. The application is written originally by Keith Winstein for Unix like operating system and released under GNU GPL v3.

  • How To Install aaPanel on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - idroot

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to install aaPanel on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. For those of you who didn’t know, aaPanel is also a free and open-source control panel for Linux. It’s easy to install & all the web hosting options are well-categorized for easily managing websites and databases. Also, it is user-friendly and offers GUI for most of the essential Linux services, making your job managing a web server easier.

    This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you through the step-by-step installation of the aaPanel control panel on Ubuntu 20.04 (Focal Fossa). You can follow the same instructions for Ubuntu 18.04, 16.04, and any other Debian-based distribution like Linux Mint.

  • How To Encrypt Files on Linux

    In our increasingly digital society, protecting the privacy of sensitive data and our behavior online is a universal concern. Many users switch to Linux for its superior privacy features and the excellent selection of privacy-focused distros that it offers.

    Regardless of the OS you are using, encryption is a critical element of digital privacy. In this article, we explore the best and most reliable methods of file encryption on Linux. Our experts have firsthand experience using these programs and understand the technology behind them, equipping us with the knowledge to help you securely encrypt files on your Linux system and avoid common pitfalls associated with Linux file encryption.

  • How To Enable Hardware Acceleration In Chromium On Raspberry Pi OS (RPi 4) - Linux Uprising Blog

    This article explains how to enable hardware acceleration in Chromium browser running on Raspberry Pi OS (for Raspberry Pi 4).

    By enabling GPU acceleration, the CPU usage should be much lower when playing supported videos (for example on YouTube). In my case, using a Raspberry Pi 4 Model B, the main Chromium gpu and renderer processes went down from ~160% and ~130% to under ~30% and 23% CPU usage (according to htop) after enabling hardware acceleration. As a side note, this is a prerequisite for an article I plan on writing soon.

  • Ngrok

    Ngrok is a cross-platform tool that uses cloud services to expose local networked services behind NATs and firewalls over a secure tunnel. Ngrok can also share local websites, build/test webhook consumers, and self-host personal services. Ngrok was created in 2012 by Alan Shreve (@inconshreveable). It operates a free and a paid version.

  • 8 steps to developing an Ansible role in Linux | Enable Sysadmin

    In the article How to use Ansible to configure Vim, I developed an Ansible playbook to configure an initial Vim environment using a few Vim plugins. In this current article, I continue building on the previous example by converting the playbook into an Ansible role.

    Ansible roles allow you to develop reusable automation components by grouping and encapsulating related automation artifacts, like configuration files, templates, tasks, and handlers. Because roles isolate these components, it's easier to reuse them and share them with other people. You can also make your roles configurable by exposing variables that users can set when calling the role, allowing them to configure their system according to specific requirements.

  • AWS Session Manager with Enhanced SSH and SCP Capability – Linux Hint

    A year ago, new features in the AWS Systems Manager Session Manager were uncovered by AWS (Amazon Web Services). Now users can directly tunnel Secure Shell (SSH) and Secure Copy (SCP) connections from local clients without needing an AWS management console. Users have relied on firewalls for years to access cloud content safely, but these options have encryption and management overhead issues. Session Manager offers cloud providers stable, audited console connectivity without the need for remote access points. One of the challenges faced by users adopting the AWS Session Manager is avoided by incorporating Secure Copy (SCP) functionality. Cloud asset console access was given inside the AWS management console, but so far, there was not any convenient way to transfer files to remote systems. Creating or maintaining a live system needs copying patches or other data to the live instances in certain cases. Now Session Manager grants this without the need for external solutions like firewalls or intermediate S3 use. Let’s look at the procedure to set up SCP and SSH to use them with enhanced capabilities.

  • Find what changed in a Git commit |

    If you use Git every day, you probably make a lot of commits. If you're using Git every day in a project with other people, it's safe to assume that everyone is making lots of commits. Every day. And this means you're aware of how disorienting a Git log can become, with a seemingly eternal scroll of changes and no sign of what's been changed.

    So how do you find out what file changed in a specific commit? It's easier than you think.


    The git whatchanged command is a legacy command that predates the log function. Its documentation says you're not meant to use it in favor of git log --raw and implies it's essentially deprecated. However, I still find it a useful shortcut to (mostly) the same output (although merge commits are excluded), and I anticipate creating an alias for it should it ever be removed. If you don't need to merge commits in your log (and you probably don't, if you're only looking to see files that changed), try git whatchanged as an easy mnemonic.

  • Get started with XDP - Red Hat Developer

    XDP (eXpress Data Path) is a powerful new networking feature in Linux that enables high-performance programmable access to networking packets before they enter the networking stack. But XDP has a high learning curve. Many developers have written introduction blogs for this feature, such as Paolo Abeni’s Achieving high-performance, low-latency networking with XDP: Part I and Toke’s Using the eXpress Data Path (XDP) in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8.

    XDP is based on extended Berkeley Packet Filter (eBPF) and is still fast-moving. The eBPF/XDP coding format and style are also changing. So developers are creating tools and frameworks to make eBPF and XDP applications easy to write. Two of these resources, the libbpf library and the xdp-tools utilities, are the topics of this article.

  • LFCA: How to Manage Software Packages in Linux – Part 7

    This article is Part 7 of the LFCA series, here in this part, you will acquaint yourself with the general system administration commands to manage software packages in the Linux system.

    As a systems administrator, you will be tasked with the responsibility of managing software packages. This includes installing, upgrading, and removing or uninstalling packages from your system.

  • Pivot With/Without Tablefunc – Linux Hint

    A Pivot Table is a powerful tool for estimating, compiling, and reviewing data to find patterns and trends even easier. Pivot Tables can be used to aggregate, sort, arrange, rearrange, group, total, or average data in a dataset to truly comprehend data associations and dependencies. Using a pivot table as an illustration is the easiest way to demonstrate how this method operates. PostgreSQL 8.3 was launched a few years back, and a new version named ‘tablefunc’ was added. Tablefunc is a component that contains several methods that yield tables (that is, multiple rows). This modification comes with a very cool range of features. The crosstab method, which will be used to create pivot tables, is among them. The crosstab method takes a textual argument: a SQL command that returns raw data in the first layout and returns a table in the subsequent layout.

  • Partition a drive on Linux with GNU Parted

    In the 21st century, we tend to take data storage for granted. We have lots of it, it's relatively affordable, and there are many different types of storage available. No matter how much cloud storage space you're given for free, there's nothing quite like having a physical hard drive for your really important (or really big, when you live on a slow network) data. However, few hard drives are sold right off the shelf, ready to use—in an ideal configuration, at least. Whether you're buying a new drive or setting up a system with a different configuration, you need to know how to partition a drive on Linux.

    This article demonstrates GNU Parted, one of the best tools for partitioning drives. If you prefer to use a graphical application instead of a terminal command, read my article on formatting drives for Linux.

  • Gdu – A Pretty Fast Disk Usage Analyzer for Linux

    In this article, we will take a look at gdu an open-source disk usage analyzer written in go. Gdu is inspired by godu, dua, ncdu, and df.

    The gdu tool is created for SSD drives where parallel processing can be utilized. This tool can also work with HDD with less performance compared to SSD drives. You can also check benchmark results. There are many other similar tools and you have to play with gdu first to see if satisfy your needs.

More in Tux Machines

digiKam 7.7.0 is released

After three months of active maintenance and another bug triage, the digiKam team is proud to present version 7.7.0 of its open source digital photo manager. See below the list of most important features coming with this release. Read more

Dilution and Misuse of the "Linux" Brand

Samsung, Red Hat to Work on Linux Drivers for Future Tech

The metaverse is expected to uproot system design as we know it, and Samsung is one of many hardware vendors re-imagining data center infrastructure in preparation for a parallel 3D world. Samsung is working on new memory technologies that provide faster bandwidth inside hardware for data to travel between CPUs, storage and other computing resources. The company also announced it was partnering with Red Hat to ensure these technologies have Linux compatibility. Read more

today's howtos

  • How to install go1.19beta on Ubuntu 22.04 – NextGenTips

    In this tutorial, we are going to explore how to install go on Ubuntu 22.04 Golang is an open-source programming language that is easy to learn and use. It is built-in concurrency and has a robust standard library. It is reliable, builds fast, and efficient software that scales fast. Its concurrency mechanisms make it easy to write programs that get the most out of multicore and networked machines, while its novel-type systems enable flexible and modular program constructions. Go compiles quickly to machine code and has the convenience of garbage collection and the power of run-time reflection. In this guide, we are going to learn how to install golang 1.19beta on Ubuntu 22.04. Go 1.19beta1 is not yet released. There is so much work in progress with all the documentation.

  • molecule test: failed to connect to bus in systemd container - openQA bites

    Ansible Molecule is a project to help you test your ansible roles. I’m using molecule for automatically testing the ansible roles of geekoops.

  • How To Install MongoDB on AlmaLinux 9 - idroot

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to install MongoDB on AlmaLinux 9. For those of you who didn’t know, MongoDB is a high-performance, highly scalable document-oriented NoSQL database. Unlike in SQL databases where data is stored in rows and columns inside tables, in MongoDB, data is structured in JSON-like format inside records which are referred to as documents. The open-source attribute of MongoDB as a database software makes it an ideal candidate for almost any database-related project. This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you the step-by-step installation of the MongoDB NoSQL database on AlmaLinux 9. You can follow the same instructions for CentOS and Rocky Linux.

  • An introduction (and how-to) to Plugin Loader for the Steam Deck. - Invidious
  • Self-host a Ghost Blog With Traefik

    Ghost is a very popular open-source content management system. Started as an alternative to WordPress and it went on to become an alternative to Substack by focusing on membership and newsletter. The creators of Ghost offer managed Pro hosting but it may not fit everyone's budget. Alternatively, you can self-host it on your own cloud servers. On Linux handbook, we already have a guide on deploying Ghost with Docker in a reverse proxy setup. Instead of Ngnix reverse proxy, you can also use another software called Traefik with Docker. It is a popular open-source cloud-native application proxy, API Gateway, Edge-router, and more. I use Traefik to secure my websites using an SSL certificate obtained from Let's Encrypt. Once deployed, Traefik can automatically manage your certificates and their renewals. In this tutorial, I'll share the necessary steps for deploying a Ghost blog with Docker and Traefik.